Tuesday, September 11, 2012

America's Four Founding Republics

Stanley Yavneh Klos and Loyola University Honors’ November 14th, 2015, presentation of America’s Four United Republics Curriculum at the National Social Studies Teachers Conference was well received.  Both the presentation and primary source exhibits were a success with several major school systems brainstorming on how the new pedagogy could be implemented in their districts.  Boston officials were especially open to the reorganization of the U.S. Founding into four distinct republics & were surprised by the scope of Presidential hospitality duties Dorothy Hancock performed as "First Lady" in the Continental Congress republics. America’s Four United Republics book & curriculum sales to individual teachers & schools were also robust.

It was an enjoyable conference due to booth neighbors like the Library of Congress,  Brown University, Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, C-Span, Nat Geo, US Mint, Columbia University, Colonial Williamsburg, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Mount Vernon, Ronald Reagan Library, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello, Louisiana Archives, The US Constitution Center, National WWII Museum, and James Madison's Foundation.  

Moreover, The Library of Congress, National Archives, National Parks Representatives and even Freedom Riders came over to the booth after the AFUR presentation with some getting their picture with the 1782 Decree of Trenton, 1803 Congressional Printing of the Louisiana Purchase & Martin Luther King, Jr. autographed Letter From A Birmingham Jail.   

America’s Four United Republics
Curriculum Supplement

The transformation of the United States of America from thirteen British colonies into the current republic was a complex political process that spanned nearly 15-years.  To describe this development, most governmental institutions -- the United States Department of State, for example, and the Smithsonian Institute -- divide the U.S. Republic into two distinct founding stages: the Continental Congress, first, and then the current U.S. Constitution of 1787 governmental system.[i]  Historians, educators, and secondary school textbooks have been more thorough and have expanded this dichotomy by dividing the Continental Congress Era into the First Continental Congress, The Second Continental Congress, and the Congress of the Confederation.[ii]  The nomenclature used to describe the different “stages” of the rapidly evolving United States, however, has resulted in confusion regarding even the most basic founding facts: for example, the USA birthdate of July 4th, 1776, conflicts with Delaware’s designation as the “first US State,” (based on that state’s status as first to ratify the current US Constitution – on December 7th, 1787).  A short list of just a few important national election and event dates demonstrates the challenges:    

America’s Four United Republics booth at the National Social Studies Teachers Conference in New Orleans with the 1782 Decree of Trenton and 1803 Congressional Printing of the Louisiana Purchase displayed on table for teacher photo opportunities.

v  What is the Birthdate of the USA? Resolution for Independency – July 2, 1776; Declaration of Independence  - July 4th, 1776; Articles of Confederation enactment – March 1, 1781; Constitution of 1787 enactment – March 4, 1789.
v  Who was the 1st United States Head of State? U.S. Continental Congress President John Hancock – July 4th, 1776; United States in Congress Assembled President Samuel Huntington – March 1, 1781; United States Constitution of 1787 President  George Washington -  April 23rd, 1789
v  What is the birthdate of the U.S. Constitution? Articles of Confederation framed November 15th, 1777 and enacted March 1st, 1781; Constitution of 1787 framed September 17, 1787 and enacted March 4, 1789.
v  Which State was the First U.S. State? New Hampshire first to vote for Independence from Great Britain – July 2nd, 1776; Virginia first to ratify the Articles of Confederation – December 16th, 1777; Delaware first to ratify the Constitution of 1787 on  December 7th, 1787
v  Who was the First Postmaster General?  Continental Congress elected Postmaster General Franklin on July 26th, 1775; United States in Congress Assembled elected Ebenezer Hazard - January 28th, 1782; Presidential  appointment Samuel Osgood - September 26th, 1789
v  Who Was the First Treasurer? Continental Congress elected Treasurer Michael Hillegas; July 29th, 1775, Constitution of 1787’s Presidential  appointment Samuel Meredith - September 11th, 1789
v  When was the first Dollar issued? The Continental Congress first enacted the United Colonies Dollar on June 23rd, 1775, United States Dollar on July 22nd, 1776 and the Constitution of 1787’s  An act establishing a mint, and regulating the Coins of the United States on April 2, 1792
v  Who was the first Commander-in-Chief? Continental Congress elected George Washington on June 15th, 1775; Constitution of 1787,  George Washington -  April 23rd, 1789
v  Name of the first bank chartered by the U.S. Congress? Bank of North America -  May 26th, 1781; First Bank of the United States - February 25th, 1791
v  Who was the First U.S. Secretary of War? U.S. Continental Congress elected Benjamin Lincoln - October 30th, 1781; United States in Congress Assembled elected Henry Knox  - March 8th, 1785
v  When was the first non-appealable U.S. Federal Court Decision issued?Decree of Trenton” - December 30th, 1782; Supreme Court “West v. Barnes” - August 3rd, 1791

Consequently, the convolution of these U.S. Founding events and dates are ubiquitously apparent in everything from school textbooks to Library of Congress exhibits under the current pedagogy.[iii] Even the U.S. Supreme Court, in its opinions, confuses the lawful difference between the United States “Continental Congress” and the Articles of Confederation’s “United States in Congress Assembled.”[iv]

America’s Four United Republics booth at the National Social Studies Teachers Conference in New Orleans with the 1782 Decree of Trenton, 1803 Congressional Printing of the Louisiana Purchase, Martin Luther King Jr.'s Letter Form A Birmingham Jail  made available for teacher photo opportunities.

Utilizing Primary Sources and Dispositio, a system used for the organization of facts in Western classical rhetoric, Stanley Yavneh Klos’ America’s Four Republics: The More or Less United States reorganized the First, Second, and Confederation “Continental Congress" pedagogy into four distinct United American Republics:

·        First United American Republic: United Colonies of North America: Thirteen British Colonies United in Congress  was founded by 12 colonies on September 5th, 1774, and expired on July 2nd, 1776, with the enactment of the Resolution for Independency. The republic was governed by a British Colonial Continental Congress which, by 1775, provided for the security of its members with the formation of a Continental Army headed by a Commander-in-Chief, establishing military hospitals, the appointment of a Postmaster General, and even the issuing of its own currency. Peyton Randolph and George Washington served, respectively, as the republic's first United Colonies Continental Congress President and Commander-in-Chief;
·  Second United American Republic: The United States of America: Thirteen Independent States United in Congress was founded by 12 colonies with the passage of the Resolution for Independency on July 2nd, 1776 and expired on March 1st, 1781, with the enactment of the Articles of Confederation. The republic was governed by the United States Continental Congress, which conducted the war for independence and elected foreign ministers to negotiate treaties and alliances. John Hancock and George Washington served, respectively, as the republic's first United States Continental Congress President and Commander-in-Chief;  
·  Third United American Republic: The United States of America: A Perpetual Union  was founded by 13 States with the Articles of Confederation’s enactment on March 1st, 1781, and expired on March 3rd, 1789.  The republic was governed through the United States in Congress Assembled, which concluded the Revolutionary War, ratified the Treaty of Paris, and primarily governed through Congressional Committees and Executive Department Heads.  Samuel Huntington and George Washington served, respectively, as the republic's first United States in Congress Assembled President and Commander-in-Chief;
·   Fourth United American Republic: The United States of America: We the People was formed by 11 states with the United States Constitution of 1787’s enactment on March 4th, 1789.   This, the current republic of the United States, governs through The United States House of Representatives and Senate in Congress Assembled (Bicameral Congress), The President of the United States of America (U.S. President), United States Supreme Court (U.S. Supreme Court) George Washington served as both the Republic's first President and its Commander-in-Chief.

In 2015, America’s Four United Republics: Curriculum Supplement (AFUR), was developed for middle, high school and college students to analyze America’s Four Republics: The More or Less United States reorganization of the United States founding by employing rhetorical strategies to scrutinize primary source evidence.  Instead of memorizing the convolution of notable founding facts and events during the Continental Congress period, students are challenged to evaluate AFUR’s reorganization of the 1774-1790 United States founding period based on the credibility and timeline of the historic record.  This curriculum supplement is specifically designed for students to deduce historical conclusions backed by inductive documentary evidence that supports, challenges, and/or refutes AFUR’s Dispositio.  Most importantly, the AFUR curriculum ensures that participating students will have a renewed sense of the fundamental experiences and influences that birthed the United States of America.

America’s Four United Republics exhibit at the National Social Studies Teachers Conference with a close-up view of the display case. Primary Sources exhibited include: President Peyton Randolph signed three pound Virginia note, 1774 printing of the Articles of Association, 1775 Richard Henry Lee Autograph Document Signed, 1776 Journals of the Continental Congress opened to the Declaration of Independence printed by John Dunlap, 1777 Journals of the Continental Congress opened to the Articles of Confederation, printed by John Dunlap, John Hancock document signed as President, Continental Congress First Lady Sarah Livingston Jay signed document, 1781 Journals of the United States in Congress Assembled opened to the enactment of the Articles of Confederation, Samuel Huntington document signed as President, Thomas McKean signed document as President, Annis Boudinot Stockton 1786 printing of the first published poem by a woman in the United States, John Jay Autograph letter signed as US Foreign Secretary, August 1787 printing of the Northwest Ordinance, Arthur St. Clair Autograph letter signed as Northwest Territorial Governor, September 1787 printing of the Constitution of 1787, and a November 1789 printing of the 12 Constitutional Amendments commonly known as the Bill of Rights.


Definition Challenge: What is a Republic?                                                                           Page 5
Challenge: When Did the First United American Republic Begin?                                        Page 6
Debate: When Was Independence Day?                                                                               Pages 7 - 8
Setting the Scene: The Articles of Confederation                                                                  Pages 9 - 10
You be the Judge: The Forming of the Fourth United American Republic                            Pages 11 – 12
Challenge: Did the United States gain its independence and
sovereignty as a result of the Definitive Treaty of Peace signed
in Paris on September 3rd, 1783?                                                                                          Pages 13 – 14
Debate: Who were the first United States’ Head of State and First Lady?                            Pages 14 - 18
Debate: Which Colony was the first U.S. State?                                                                   Pages 19 – 21
Challenge: Which city was the first U.S. “Capital”?  What building was the
first U.S. Capitol?                                                                                                                    Pages 22 – 23
You be the Judge: Was the 1782 Decree of Trenton the first Federal
Court Decision?                                                                                                                      Pages 24 – 25
Why did the 1789 Congress approve a dysfunctional first amendment,
Article the First, to the Constitution of 1787?                                                                         Pages 26 – 29
The Historian: Unit Assessment                                                                                             Page 30
End Notes                                                                                                                               Page 31 - 32
UCCC, USCC, USCA, & US Presidential Duties & Powers Chart                                       Insert

                                            America's Four United Republics Curriculum

Media Alert
After 102 Years, The Federal Government Finally Agrees: Samuel Huntington And Not John Hanson Was The First USCA President to Serve Under The Articles of Confederation.

Stanley Klos, Plaintiff, Appellant v. Henry M. Paulson, Jr., Secretary of the Treasury,  Defendant, Appellee: “The plaintiff’s wish to correct what he regards as a widespread misconception about those who served the nation under the Articles of Confederation is laudable.” – Steven D. Merryday, Chief United States District Judge.
Copyright © 2015, All Rights Reserved - Stanley Yavneh Klos

[i] See, for example, Department of State, Common Core Document of the United States of America ... “In 1783 the Continental Congress voted to establish a federal city, and the specific site was chosen by President George Washington in 1790.” Washington D.C., 2012 http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/179780.htm and Smithsonian Institute, Traveling exhibit: A Glorious Burden, The American Presidency, “John Hanson was the First President of The Continental Congress," http://americanhistory.si.edu/presidency/home.html.
[ii] See, for example, Kenneth R. Bowling,” 'A Tub to the Whale': the Founding Fathers and Adoption of the Federal Bill of Rights.” Journal of the Early Republic 8 (Fall 1988), 225.
[iii] See, for example, Alan Brinkley, who declares, The first elections under the Constitution took place in the early months of 1789.  Almost all of the newly elected congressmen and senators had favored ratification.…”  New York: McGraw Hill, 2007, p. 168, and Library of Congress Creating the United States Exhibit: “Confederation Congress Elects Its First President John Hanson Charles Thomson to George Washington, November 5, 1781 letter, Manuscript.
[iv] "Appreciation of the Continental Congress’s incapacity to deal with this class of cases was intensified by the so called Marbois  incident  of May 1784 ..." Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain 542 US 692.  Supreme Court of the U.S., 2004, p. 22.  

America’s Four Republics

The More or Less United States

Autographed Second Editions

America's Four Republics

Stan Klos
PO Box 15696
New Orleans, LA 70115
(202) 239-1774

Middle and High School Curriculum Supplement

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U.S. Dollar Presidential Coin Mr. Klos vs Secretary Paulson - Click Here