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By: Stanley Yavneh Klos
Edited By: Naomi Yavneh Klos, Ph.D.
America's Four United Republics
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To tell the story of the U.S. Founding, the author unveiled his new book at an Annapolis Continental Congress Festival on November 26th, 2012. The Festival featured a range of new media and interactive experiences, along with talks by author and noted scholars.
The key storytellers, however, were the one hundred original 18th-century documents, manuscripts, and letters from the United Colonies of America (1774-1776), the Thirteen Independent States United in Congress (1776-1781), the United States of America under the Articles of Confederation (1781 -1787), and We the People of the United States (1789-Present) under the 1787 U.S. Constitution and its 1789 Bill of Rights all organized into the four founding republics in the exhibit: America’s Four Republics: The More or Less United States.©
ABOUT THE EXHIBIT
America’s Four Republics: The More or Less United States Exhibit ©, showcases America’s political evolution from 1774 to 1789. The exhibit was presented in more than 3,000 square feet of gallery space, and is broken into four parts. The 14 men who served as president under the Continental Congress and Articles of Confederation are each represented by original documents and a series of newly-commissioned oil paintings.
- The First Republic: United Colonies of America - King George and Queen Charlotte welcome visitors in an oil painting gallery. Original letters and manuscripts of Colonial Continental Congress Presidents Peyton Randolph, Henry Middleton, and John Hancock that culminate with a rare 1774 Philadelphia printing of the Articles of Association and Thomas Paine’s Common Sense.
- The Second Republic: Thirteen Independent States United in Congress - Richard Henry Lee’s July 2, 1776 Resolution for Independence is followed by an original July 1776 Declaration of Independence imprint surrounded with rare letters and documents of many signers of the Declaration, including all those from Maryland. The oil painting gallery continues with documents from three more Presidents of the Continental Congress, John Hancock, Henry Laurens, and John Jay.
- The Third Republic: United States of America – A Not Quite Perpetual Union - Featuring the Articles of Confederation, Treaty of Paris Proclamation, and the Northwest Ordinance as the gateway to a Presidential oil painting gallery displayed above original letters and manuscripts of the ten U.S. Presidents under the Articles of Confederation, Samuel Huntington, Thomas McKean, John Hanson, Elias Boudinot, Thomas Mifflin, Richard Henry Lee, John Hancock, Nathaniel Gorham, Arthur St. Clair, and Cyrus Griffin. Elias Boudinot’s 1783 presidential letter thanking General Arthur St. Clair for freeing Congress from a military mutiny that surrounded Independence Hall is featured along with George Washington Commander-in-Chief letters and the 1784 Treaty of Paris Proclamation. The Federalist Papers are also featured in this period.
|Robert Morris Jail Letter and Promissory note utilized in his|
bankruptcy trial freeing him from debtor's prison after 3 1/2 years.
- The Fourth Republic: United States of America - We the People Beginning with a rare September 1787 printing of the U.S. Constitution this section is filled with key founding letters, documents and manuscripts from President George Washington, Vice President John Adams, and cabinet members Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, Henry Knox and Edmond Randolph.
The More or Less United States
By: Stanley Yavneh Klos
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Edited by: Dr. Naomi Yavneh Klos
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Thirteen British Colonies United in Congress. - 15
Who Was First? - 109
Delegates from the United Colonies of America first caucused
at the City Tavern in Philadelphia on September 4, 1774
Tavern to Tavern
September 5, 1774 to March 4, 1789
This form of government is a convention by which several smaller states agree to become members of a larger one, which they intend to form. It is a kind of assemblage of societies that constitute a new one, capable of increasing, by means of new associations, till they arrive to such a degree of power as to be able to provide for the security of the united body.
The definition of a confederate republic seems simply to be "an assemblage of societies," or an association of two or more states into one state. The extent, modifications, and objects of the federal authority are mere matters of discretion. So long as the separate organization of the members be not abolished; so long as it exists, by a constitutional necessity, for local purposes; though it should be in perfect subordination to the general authority of the union, it would still be, in fact and in theory, an association of states, or a confederacy. The proposed Constitution, so far from implying an abolition of the State governments, makes them constituent parts of the national sovereignty, by allowing them a direct representation in the Senate, and leaves in their possession certain exclusive and very important portions of sovereign power. This fully corresponds, in every rational import of the terms, with the idea of a federal government.
… we may define a republic to be, or at least may bestow that name on, a government which derives all its powers directly or indirectly from the great body of the people, and is administered by persons holding their offices during pleasure, for a limited period, or during good behavior. It is essential to such a government that it be derived from the great body of the society, not from an inconsiderable proportion, or a favored class of it; otherwise a handful of tyrannical nobles, exercising their oppressions by a delegation of their powers, might aspire to the rank of republicans, and claim for their government the honorable title of republic. It is sufficient for such a government that the persons administering it be appointed, either directly or indirectly, by the people; and that they hold their appointments by either of the tenures just specified …
- First United American Republic: United Colonies of America: 13 British Colonies United in Congress (September 5th, 1774 to July 1, 1776) was founded by 12 colonies under the First Continental Congress and expired under the Second Continental Congress; 
- Second United American Republic: The United States of America: 13 Independent States United in Congress (July 2, 1776 to February 28, 1781) was founded by 12 states in the Second Continental Congress and expired with the Articles of Confederation’s ratification;
- Third United American Republic: The United States of America: A Not Quite Perpetual Union  (March 1, 1781 to March 3, 1789) was founded by 13 States with the Articles of Confederation’s enactment and expired with U.S. Constitution of 1787’s ratification;
- Fourth United American Republic: The United States of America: We the People (March 4, 1789 to Present) was formed by 11 states with the United States Constitution of 1787’s enactment and still exists today.
- The First United American Republic Government: The United Colonies of America Continental Congress (U.C. Continental Congress), with the name “Continental Congress” being adopted in the Articles of Association.
- The Second United American Republic Government: The United States of America Continental Congress (U.S. Continental Congress), with the name “Colonies” being changed to “States” by the Declaration of Independence.
- The Third United American Republic Government: The United States in Congress Assembled (USCA or Confederation Congress), with the name being adopted in the Articles of Confederation.
- The Fourth United American Republic Government: The United States House of Representatives and Senate in Congress Assembled (Bicameral Congress), The President of the United States of America (U.S. President), United States Supreme Court (U.S. Supreme Court), with the names all adopted in the Constitution of 1787.  For the purpose of this book the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate in Congress Assembled is abbreviated to the U.S. Bicameral Congress.
13 British Colonies United in Congress.
(Excerpt Page 18)
It would be Delaware’s term, a Continental Congress that was formally adopted on October 20, 1774, by a resolution known as the Articles of Association that implemented a British trade boycott. The naming of the colonial congress in the Articles of Association can be found in the resolution’s first paragraph:
We, his majesty's most loyal subjects, the delegates of the several colonies of New-Hampshire, Massachusetts-Bay, Rhode-Island, Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, the three lower counties of Newcastle, Kent and Sussex on Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, and South-Carolina, deputed to represent them in a Continental Congress, held in the city of Philadelphia, on the 5th day of September, 1774. 
|Articles of Association Manuscript "... represent them in a Continental Congress."|
Second United American Republic: United States of America:
13 Independent States United in Congress
(Excerpt Page 27)
Third United American Republic:
United States of America: A Not Quite Perpetual Union
- By 1780, the U.S. Continental Congress was convened with delegates who had been elected after the 12 respective states represented had ratified the Articles of Confederation;
- On February 2nd, 1781, Maryland ratified the Constitution of 1777 and sent two delegates to assemble, with the other 12 state delegations, under the Articles of Confederation;
- On March 1st, 1781, the Continental Congress of the United States of America voted to adopt the Articles of Confederation and then adjourned to celebrate the formation of a “Perpetual Union between the states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts-bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.” 
- On March 2nd, 1781, the delegates -- all elected or appointed after their respective states ratified the new constitution -- convened a 13-State quorum as the United States in Congress Assembled under the Articles of Confederation;
- The Journals of the United States in Congress Assembled record that Samuel Huntington presided as President on March 2nd, 1781, and served until July 6th, 1781;
- The Journals of the United States in Congress Assembled report that there were two Presidential elections after Samuel Huntington’s resignation on July 6th and before John Hanson’s November 5th election as President. Delegate Samuel Johnston of North Carolina was elected President on July 9th, 1781, but he refused the office. The following day, the Delegates elected Thomas McKean President and he accepted the office;
- President Thomas McKean, like Samuel Huntington, executed numerous resolutions, proclamations, and letters as President of the United States in Congress Assembled;
- President John Hanson himself acknowledged, on November 10th, 1781, in a letter of “official thanks” to Thomas McKean, the latter’s service as President of the United States in Congress Assembled.
Fourth United American Republic:
United States of America:We The People
(Excerpt Page 99)
On April 30th, 1789, George Washington was escorted to the newly-renovated Federal Hall located at Wall and Nassau Street. The newly remodeled building:
… came richly laden with historical associations, having hosted John Peter Zenger’s trial in 1735, the Stamp Act Congress of 1765 and the Confederation Congress from 1785 to 1788. Starting in September 1788, the French engineer Pierre-Charles L’Enfant had remodeled it into Federal Hall, a suitable home for Congress. L’Enfant introduced a covered arcade at street level and a balcony surmounted by a triangular pediment on the second story. As the people’s chamber, the House of Representatives was accessible to the public, situated in a high-ceilinged octagonal room on the ground floor, while the Senate met in a second-floor room on the Wall Street side, buffering it from popular pressure. From this room Washington would emerge onto the balcony to take the oath of office. In many ways, the first inauguration was a hasty, slapdash affair. As with all theatrical spectacles, rushed preparations and frantic work on the new building continued until a few days before the event. Nervous anticipation spread through the city as to whether the 200 workmen would complete the project on time. Only a few days before the inauguration, an eagle was hoisted onto the pediment, completing the building. The final effect was stately: a white building with a blue and white cupola topped by a weather vane.
There was, as yet, no U.S. Chief Justice so the oath was administered by New York Chancellor Robert R. Livingston on Federal Hall’s second floor balcony, overlooking a crowd assembled in the streets. Mrs. Eliza Susan Morton Quincy, wife of Josiah Quincy, provides this account of the inauguration:
I was on the roof of the first house in Broad Street … and so near to Washington that I could almost hear him speak. The windows and roofs of the houses were crowded; and in the streets the throng was so dense, that it seemed as if one might literally walk on the heads of the people. The balcony of the hall was in full view of this assembled multitude. In the centre of it was placed a table, with a rich covering of red velvet; and upon this, on a crimson velvet cushion, lay a large and elegant Bible. … All eyes were fixed upon the balcony; where, at the appointed hour, Washington entered, accompanied by the Chancellor of the State of New York, who was to administer the oath; by John Adams, the Vice-President; Governor Clinton; and many other distinguished men. … His appearance was most solemn and dignified. Advancing to the front of the balcony, he laid his hand on his heart, bowed several times, and then retired to an arm-chair near the table. The populace appeared to understand that the scene had overcome him, and were at once hushed in profound silence. After a few moments, Washington arose, and came forward. Chancellor Livingston read the oath according to the form prescribed by the Constitution; and Washington repeated it, resting his hand upon the Bible. Mr. Otis, the Secretary of the Senate, then took the Bible to raise it to the lips of Washington; who stooped, and kissed the book. At this moment, a signal was given, by raising a flag upon the cupola of the Hall, for a general discharge of the artillery of the Battery. All the bells in the city rang out a peal of joy, and the assembled multitude sent forth a universal shout. The President again bowed to the people, and then retired from a scene such as the proudest monarch never enjoyed. Many entertainments were given, both public and private; and the city was illuminated in the evening.
President Washington, Vice President Adams, and the members of Congress retired to the Senate Chamber. Here the President delivered the first inaugural address that was drafted by James Madison. Washington explained his disinclination to accept the presidency and highlighted his own shortcomings, including “frequent interruptions in health,” “unpractised in the duties of civil administration,” and intellectually “inheriting inferior endowments from nature.” Washington left the presidential prerogative "to recommend to your consideration, such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient” to Congress except for suggesting they consider amendments to the constitution that were proposed by the states’ conventions.
America’s Four United Republics:
Who Was First? - 109
(Excerpt page 118)
- The U.S. Continental Congress voted on Jan 10th, 1781 to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs. On Aug 10th, 1781, the USCA elected the first Secretary of Foreign Affairs, Robert R. Livingston.
- Under the Constitution of 1787, the Act of July 27, 1789 reestablished the Department of Foreign Affairs as a Presidential Executive Department. The act provided that the principal officer therein should be the Secretary for the Department of Foreign Affairs. John Jay, who was the second Secretary of Foreign Affairs under the Articles of Confederation, remained in the position as Acting Secretary of Foreign Affairs.
- John Jay turned down the appointment of Secretary of State but agreed to remain in the acting position until another appointment was made and accepted.
- John Jay, therefore, was not confirmed nor took the oath of office to serve as U.S. Secretary of State.
- Thomas Jefferson was appointed by George Washington on September 25th, 1789 and was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on the following day.
(Excerpt Page 157)
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The First United American Republic
Continental Congress of the United States Presidents
July 2, 1776 to February 28, 1781
March 1, 1781 to March 3, 1789
March 1, 1781
July 6, 1781
July 10, 1781
July 10, 1781
November 4, 1781
November 5, 1781
November 3, 1782
November 4, 1782
November 2, 1783
November 3, 1783
June 3, 1784
November 30, 1784
November 22, 1785
November 23, 1785
June 5, 1786
June 6, 1786
February 1, 1787
February 2, 1787
January 21, 1788
January 22, 1788
January 21, 1789
The Fourth United American Republic
Presidents of the United States of America
America's Four United Republics
|Stan Klos lecturing at the Republican National Convention's PoliticalFest 2000 Rebels With A Vision Exhibit in Philadelphia's Convention Hall|
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