Tuesday, September 11, 2012

America's Four Founding Republics

America’s Four Republics

The More or Less United States

Autographed Second Editions

America's Four Republics

Stan Klos
PO Box 15696
New Orleans, LA 70115
(202) 239-1774

Media Alert
July 2nd, 2015
New Orleans, Louisiana 
After 102 Years, The Federal Government Finally Agrees: Samuel Huntington And Not John Hanson Was The First USCA President to Serve Under The Articles of Confederation.
Historian Stanley Yavneh Klos Pleads With Maryland To Stop Funding Efforts That Purport John & Jane Hanson As The First President & First Lady Of The United States.

America’s Four Republics: The More or Less United States
Stanley and Naomi Yavneh Klos | Venue 15696 | 2000 Louisiana Ave | New Orleans, LA | 70115 | tel: 504-264-1787 | evisum@historic.us

The transformation of the United States of America from thirteen British colonies into the current republic was a complex political process that spanned nearly 15-years. To describe this development, most governmental institutions -- the United States Department of State, for example, and the Smithsonian Institute, divide the U.S. Republic into two distinct founding stages: the Continental Congress, first, and then the current U.S. Constitution of 1787 governmental system.[i] Historians, educators, and secondary school textbooks have been more thorough and expanded this dichotomy by dividing the Continental Congress Era into the First Continental Congress, The Second Continental Congress, and the Congress of the Confederation.[ii] This nomenclature used to describe the different “stages” of the rapidly evolving U.S. Republic, however, has resulted in confusion regarding even the most basic founding facts: for example, the USA birthdate of July 4th, 1776 conflicts with Delaware’s designation as the first US State (it was the first state to ratify the current US Constitution – on December 7th, 1787). A short list of just a few important national election and event dates demonstrates the challenges:

v What is the Birthdate of the USA?  Independence Day  - July  4th, 1776
v Who was the First President of the United States?  President  George Washington -  April 23rd, 1789
v What is the birthdate of the First U.S. Constitution? Framed November 15th, 1777 and enacted March 1st, 1781
v Which State was the First U.S. State? Delaware first to ratify the 2nd U.S. Constitution on  December 7th, 1787
v Who was the First Postmaster General?  Continental Congress elected Postmaster General Franklin on July 26th, 1775
v Who Was the First Treasurer? Continental Congress elected Treasurers Hillegas and Clymer on July 29th, 1775
v When was the first Dollar currency issued? Continental Congress  issue the first Dollar on June 23rd, 1775
v Who was the first Commander-in-Chief? Continental Congress elected George Washington on June 15th, 1775
v Name of the first bank chartered by the U.S. Congress? Bank of North America on May 26th, 1781
v Who was the First U.S. Secretary of War? Continental Congress elected Benjamin Lincoln on October 30th, 1781
v When was the first U.S. Federal Court Decision issued? December 30th, 1782

Consequently, the convolution of these U.S. Founding events and dates are ubiquitously apparent in everything from school textbooks to Library of Congress exhibits under the current pedagogy.[iii] Even the U.S. Supreme Court, in its opinions, confuses the lawful difference between the “Continental Congress” and the Articles of Confederation’s “United States in Congress Assembled.”[iv]  

In 2012, utilizing primary sources, the book: America’s Four Republics: The More or Less United States reorganized the “First, Second, and Confederation Continental Congress" pedagogy into three distinct United American Republics that were formed by congressional laws, resolutions and state ratified constitutions that progressed into a fourth, the current United States Republic:

  • First United American Republic: United Colonies of North America: Thirteen British Colonies United in Congress  was founded by 12 colonies on September 5th, 1774, and expired on July 2nd, 1776, with the enactment of the Resolution for Independency. The republic was governed by a British Colonial Continental Congress which, by 1775, provided for the security of its members with the formation of a Continental Army, the creation of a post office, the election of foreign ministers, and the issuing of its own currency. Peyton Randolph and George Washington served, respectively, as the republic's first United Colonies Continental Congress President and Commander-in-Chief;
  • Second United American Republic: The United States of America: Thirteen Independent States United in Congress was founded by 12 colonies with the passage of the Resolution for Independency on July 2nd, 1776 and expired on March 1st, 1781, with the enactment of the Articles of Confederation. The republic was governed by the United States Continental Congress. John Hancock and George Washington served, respectively, as the republic's first United States Continental Congress President and Commander-in-Chief;  
  • Third United American Republic: The United States of America: A Not Quite Perpetual Union  was founded by 13 States with the Articles of Confederation’s enactment on March 1st, 1781, and expired on March 3rd, 1789.  The republic was governed through the United States in Congress Assembled.  Samuel Huntington and George Washington served, respectively, as the republic's first United States in Congress Assembled President and Commander-in-Chief;
  • Fourth United American Republic: The United States of America: We the People was formed by 11 states with the United States Constitution of 1787’s enactment on March 4th, 1789.   The current republic is governed by The United States House of Representatives and Senate in Congress Assembled (Bicameral Congress), The President of the United States of America (U.S. President), United States Supreme Court (U.S. Supreme Court), with the nomenclature all espoused in the Constitution of 1787. For the purpose of this book the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate in Congress Assembled is abbreviated to the U.S. Bicameral Congress. George Washington served as both the Republic's first President and its Commander-in-Chief.

In 2015, a curriculum supplement for America’s Four Republics was developed for primary and secondary schools.  This curriculum was designed to teach students how to examine historical questions by employing reading strategies and scrutinizing primary source evidence.  Instead of memorizing the convolution of notable founding facts, students are challenged to evaluate the 1774-1790 United States founding period based on the credibility of the historic record and its issues.  In short, the curriculum is designed for students to deduce historical conclusions backed by inductive documentary evidence.


Definition Challenge: What is a Republic?

Challenge: When Did the First United American Republic Begin? 

Debate: When Was Independence Day?

Setting the Scene: The Articles of Confederation

You be the Judge: The Forming of the Fourth United American Republic

Challenge: Did the United States gain its independence and sovereignty as a result of the Definitive Treaty of Peace signed in Paris on September 3rd, 1783?

Debate: Who were the first United States’ Head of State and First Lady?

UCCC, USCC, USCA, & US Presidential Duties & Powers Chart

Debate: Which Colony was the first U.S. State?

Challenge: Which city was the first United States Capital?

Debate: When did the First U.S. Federal Court Convene?

Why did the 1789 Congress approve a dysfunctional first amendment, Article the First, to the Constitution of 1787?

The Historian: Unit Assessment

Curriculum End Notes

Presidential Household Budget

[i] See, for example, Department of State, Common Core Document of the United States of America ... “In 1783 the Continental Congress voted to establish a federal city, and the specific site was chosen by President George Washington in 1790.” Washington D.C., 2012 http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/179780.htm and Smithsonian Institute, Traveling exhibit: A Glorious Burden, The American Presidency, “John Hanson was the First President of The Continental Congress,"  http://americanhistory.si.edu/presidency/home.html.
[ii] See, for example, Kenneth R. Bowling,” 'A Tub to the Whale': the Founding Fathers and Adoption of the Federal Bill of Rights.” Journal of the Early Republic 8 (Fall 1988), 225
[iii] See, for example, Alan Brinkley, who declares, The first elections under the Constitution took place in the early months of 1789.  Almost all of the newly elected congressman and senators had favored ratification.…”  New York: McGraw Hill, 2007, p. 168 and Library of Congress Creating the United States Exhibit: “Confederation Congress Elects Its First President John Hanson Charles Thomson to George Washington, November 5, 1781 letter, Manuscript.
[iv] "Appreciation of the Continental Congress’s incapacity to deal with this class of cases was intensified  by  the  so called Marbois  incident  of May 1784 ..." Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain 542 US 692.  Supreme Court of the U.S., 2004, p. 22.

The 2012 Continental Congress Festival Exhibit
Media & Speakers Release - Click Here

To tell the story of the U.S. Founding, the  book's first edition (now sold out) was unveiled at the Annapolis  Continental Congress Festival on November 26th, 2012. The Festival featured a range of new media and interactive experiences, along with talks by author and noted scholars. 

The key storytellers at the Continental Congress Festival were the one hundred original 18th-century documents, manuscripts, and letters from the United Colonies of America (1774-1776),  the Thirteen Independent States United in Congress (1776-1781), the United States of America under the Articles of Confederation (1781 -1787), and We the People of the United States (1789-Present) under the 1787 U.S. Constitution and its 1789 Bill of Rights all organized into the four founding republics in the exhibit: America’s Four Republics: The More or Less United States. 


America’s Four Republics: The More or Less United States Exhibit ©, showcases America’s political evolution from 1774 to 1789. The exhibit was presented in more than 3,000 square feet of gallery space, and is broken into four parts. The 14 men who served as president under the Continental Congress and Articles of Confederation are each represented by original documents and a series of newly-commissioned oil paintings.

1774 Articles of Association names Continental Congress 

Image Courtesy of Klos Yavneh Collection

  • The First Republic: United Colonies of America - King George and Queen Charlotte welcome visitors in an oil painting gallery. Original letters and manuscripts of Colonial Continental Congress Presidents Peyton Randolph, Henry Middleton, and John Hancock that culminate with a rare 1774 Philadelphia printing of the Articles of Association and Thomas Paine’s Common Sense.
July 2, 1776
  • The Second Republic: Thirteen Independent States United in Congress - Richard Henry Lee’s July 2, 1776 Resolution for Independence is followed by an original July 1776 Declaration of Independence imprint surrounded with rare letters and documents of many signers of the Declaration, including all those from Maryland. The oil painting gallery continues with documents from three more Presidents of the Continental Congress, John Hancock, Henry Laurens, and John Jay. 

Treaty of Paris Ratification Proclamation  January 14, 1784
  • The Third Republic: United States of America – A Not Quite Perpetual Union - Featuring the Articles of Confederation, Treaty of Paris Proclamation, and the Northwest Ordinance as the gateway to a Presidential oil painting gallery displayed above original letters and manuscripts of the ten U.S. Presidents under the Articles of Confederation, Samuel Huntington, Thomas McKean, John Hanson, Elias Boudinot, Thomas Mifflin, Richard Henry Lee, John Hancock, Nathaniel Gorham, Arthur St. Clair, and Cyrus Griffin.  Elias Boudinot’s 1783 presidential letter thanking General Arthur St. Clair for freeing Congress from a military mutiny that surrounded Independence Hall is featured along with George Washington Commander-in-Chief letters and the 1784 Treaty of Paris Proclamation.  The Federalist Papers are also featured in this period.
Robert Morris Jail Letter and Promissory note utilized in his
bankruptcy trial freeing him from debtor's prison after 3 1/2 years.
  • The Fourth Republic: United States of America - We the People  Beginning with a rare September 1787 printing of the U.S. Constitution this section is filled with key founding letters, documents and manuscripts from President George Washington, Vice President John Adams, and cabinet members Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, Henry Knox and Edmond Randolph.   

America’s Four Republics:


The More or Less United States 

By: Stanley Yavneh Klos

Autographed Second Editions

America's Four Republics

The 2012 Continental Congress Festival Exhibit
Full Media & Speakers Release - Click Here


America's Four United Republics

Stan Klos lecturing at the Republican National Convention's PoliticalFest 2000 Rebels With A Vision Exhibit  in Philadelphia's Convention Hall 

Primary Source exhibits are available for display in your community. The costs range from $1,000 to $25,000 depending on length of time on loan and the rarity of artifacts chosen. 


Dr. Naomi Yavneh Klos hosting the Louisiana Primary Source Exhibit at the State Capitol Building for the 2012 Bicentennial Celebration.

Book a primary source exhibit and a professional speaker for your next event by contacting Historic.us today. Our Clients include many Fortune 500 companies, associations, non-profits, colleges, universities, national conventions, pr and advertising agencies. As the leading exhibitor of primary sources, many of our clients have benefited from our historic displays that are designed to entertain and educate your target audience. Contact us to learn how you can join our "roster" of satisfied clientele today!


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Primary Source Exhibits

2000 Louisiana Avenue | Venue 15696
New Orleans, Louisiana, 70115

727-771-1776 | Exhibit Inquiries

202-239-1774 | Office

Dr. Naomi and Stanley Yavneh Klos, Principals


Primary Source exhibits are available for display in your community. The costs range from $1,000 to $35,000 depending on length of time on loan and the rarity of artifacts chosen. 

Website: www.Historic.us

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