AFUR Curriculum

Please join us in our mission to incorporate America's Four United Republics discovery-based curriculum into the classroom of every primary and secondary school in the United States of America by July 2, 2026, the nation’s 250th birthday. 

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                                               America's Four United Republics Curriculum
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America’s Four United Republics
Presidential Alert: After 102 years, the Federal Government finally agrees that Samuel Huntington and not John Hanson was the first USCA President to serve under the Articles of Confederation.  -- Click Here

The transformation of the United States of America from thirteen British colonies into the current republic was a complex political process that spanned nearly 15-years.  To describe this development, most governmental institutions -- the United States Department of State, for example, and the Smithsonian Institute -- divide the U.S. Republic into two distinct founding stages: the Continental Congress, first, and then the current U.S. Constitution of 1787 governmental system.[i]  Historians, educators, and secondary school textbooks have been more thorough and have expanded this dichotomy by dividing the Continental Congress Era into the First Continental Congress, The Second Continental Congress, and the Congress of the Confederation.[ii]  The nomenclature used to describe the different “stages” of the rapidly evolving United States, however, has resulted in confusion regarding even the most basic founding facts: for example, the USA birthdate of July 4th, 1776, conflicts with Delaware’s designation as the “first US State,” (based on that state’s status as first to ratify the current US Constitution – on December 7th, 1787).  A short list of just a few important national election and event dates demonstrates the challenges:    

v  What is the Birthdate of the USA? Resolution for Independency – July 2, 1776; Declaration of Independence  - July 4th, 1776; Articles of Confederation enactment – March 1, 1781; Constitution of 1787 enactment – March 4, 1789.
v  Who was the 1st United States Head of State? U.S. Continental Congress President John Hancock – July 4th, 1776; United States in Congress Assembled President Samuel Huntington – March 1, 1781; United States Constitution of 1787 President  George Washington -  April 23rd, 1789
v  What is the birthdate of the U.S. Constitution? Articles of Confederation framed November 15th, 1777 and enacted March 1st, 1781Constitution of 1787 framed September 17, 1787 and enacted March 4, 1789.
v  Which State was the First U.S. State? New Hampshire first to vote for Independence from Great Britain – July 2nd, 1776; Virginia first to ratify the Articles of Confederation – December 16th, 1777; Delaware first to ratify theConstitution of 1787 on  December 7th, 1787
v  Who was the First Postmaster General?  Continental Congress elected Postmaster General Franklin on July 26th, 1775; United States in Congress Assembled elected Ebenezer Hazard - January 28th, 1782; Presidential  appointment Samuel Osgood - September 26th, 1789
v  Who Was the First Treasurer? Continental Congress elected Treasurer Michael Hillegas; July 29th, 1775,Constitution of 1787’s Presidential  appointment Samuel Meredith - September 11th, 1789
v  When was the first Dollar issued? The Continental Congress first enacted the United Colonies Dollar on June 23rd, 1775, United States Dollar on July 22nd, 1776 and the Constitution of 1787’s  An act establishing a mint, and regulating the Coins of the United States on April 2, 1792
v  Who was the first Commander-in-Chief? Continental Congress elected George Washington on June 15th, 1775;Constitution of 1787,  George Washington -  April 23rd, 1789
v  Name of the first bank chartered by the U.S. Congress? Bank of North America -  May 26th, 1781; First Bank of the United States - February 25th, 1791
v  Who was the First U.S. Secretary of War? U.S. Continental Congress elected Benjamin Lincoln - October 30th, 1781; United States in Congress Assembled elected Henry Knox  - March 8th, 1785
v  When was the first non-appealable U.S. Federal Court Decision issued? “Decree of Trenton” - December 30th, 1782; Supreme Court “West v. Barnes” - August 3rd, 1791

Consequently, the convolution of these U.S. Founding events and dates are ubiquitously apparent in everything from school textbooks to Library of Congress exhibits under the current pedagogy.[iii] Even the U.S. Supreme Court, in its opinions, confuses the lawful difference between the United States “Continental Congress” and the Articles of Confederation’s “United States in Congress Assembled.”[iv]

Utilizing Primary Sources and Dispositio, a system used for the organization of facts in Western classical rhetoric, Stanley Yavneh Klos’ America’s Four Republics: The More or Less United States reorganized the First, Second, and Confederation “Continental Congress" pedagogy into four distinct United American Republics:

·   First United American Republic: United Colonies of North America: Thirteen British Colonies United in Congress was founded by 12 colonies on September 5th, 1774, and expired on July 2nd, 1776, with the enactment of the Resolution for Independency. The republic was governed by a British Colonial Continental Congress which, by 1775, provided for the security of its members with the formation of a Continental Army headed by a Commander-in-Chief, establishing military hospitals, the appointment of a Postmaster General, and even the issuing of its own currency. Peyton Randolph and George Washington served, respectively, as the republic's first United Colonies Continental Congress President and Commander-in-Chief;
·  Second United American Republic: The United States of America: Thirteen Independent States United in Congress was founded by 12 colonies with the passage of the Resolution for Independency on July 2nd, 1776 and expired on March 1st, 1781, with the enactment of the Articles of Confederation. The republic was governed by the United States Continental Congress, which conducted the war for independence and elected foreign ministers to negotiate treaties and alliances. John Hancock and George Washington served, respectively, as the republic's first United States Continental Congress President and Commander-in-Chief;  
·  Third United American Republic: The United States of America: A Perpetual Union  was founded by 13 States with the Articles of Confederation’s enactment on March 1st, 1781, and expired on March 3rd, 1789.  The republic was governed through the United States in Congress Assembled, which concluded the Revolutionary War, ratified the Treaty of Paris, and primarily governed through Congressional Committees and Executive Department Heads.  Samuel Huntington and George Washington served, respectively, as the republic's first United States in Congress Assembled President and Commander-in-Chief;
·   Fourth United American Republic: The United States of America: We the People was formed by 11 states with the United States Constitution of 1787’s enactment on March 4th, 1789.   This, the current republic of the United States, governs through The United States House of Representatives and Senate in Congress Assembled (Bicameral Congress), The President of the United States of America (U.S. President), United States Supreme Court (U.S. Supreme Court).   George Washington served as both the Republic's first President and its Commander-in-Chief.

In 2015, America’s Four United Republics: Curriculum Supplement (AFUR), was developed for middle, high school and college students to analyze America’s Four Republics: The More or Less United States reorganization of the United States founding by employing rhetorical strategies to scrutinize primary source evidence.  Instead of memorizing the convolution of notable founding facts and events during the Continental Congress period, students are challenged to evaluate AFUR’s reorganization of the 1774-1790 United States founding period based on the credibility and timeline of the historic record.  This curriculum supplement is specifically designed for students to deduce historical conclusions backed by inductive documentary evidence that supports, challenges, and/or refutes AFUR’s Dispositio.  Most importantly, the AFUR curriculum ensures that participating students will have a renewed sense of the fundamental experiences and influences that birthed the United States of America.


Definition Challenge: What is a Republic?                                                                           Page 5
Challenge: When Did the First United American Republic Begin?                                        Page 6
Debate: When Was Independence Day?                                                                               Pages 7 - 8
Setting the Scene: The Articles of Confederation                                                                  Pages 9 - 10
You be the Judge: The Forming of the Fourth United American Republic                            Pages 11 – 12
Challenge: Did the United States gain its independence and
sovereignty as a result of the Definitive Treaty of Peace signed
in Paris on September 3rd, 1783?                                                                                          Pages 13 – 14
Debate: Who were the first United States’ Head of State and First Lady?                            Pages 14 - 18
Debate: Which Colony was the first U.S. State?                                                                   Pages 19 – 21
Challenge: Which city was the first U.S. “Capital”?  What building was the
first U.S. Capitol?                                                                                                                    Pages 22 – 23
You be the Judge: Was the 1782 Decree of Trenton the first Federal
Court Decision?                                                                                                                      Pages 24 – 25
Why did the 1789 Congress approve a dysfunctional first amendment,
Article the First, to the Constitution of 1787?                                                                         Pages 26 – 29
The Historian: Unit Assessment                                                                                             Page 30
End Notes                                                                                                                               Page 31 - 32
UCCC, USCC, USCA, & US Presidential Duties & Powers Chart                                       Insert

Debate: Which Colony was the first U.S. State?

Capitals of the United Colonies and States of America

Sept. 5, 1774 to Oct. 24, 1774
May 10, 1775 to Dec. 12, 1776
Dec. 20, 1776 to Feb. 27, 1777
March 4, 1777 to Sept. 18, 1777
September 27, 1777
Sept. 30, 1777 to June 27, 1778
July 2, 1778 to June 21, 1783
June 30, 1783 to Nov. 4, 1783
Nov. 26, 1783 to Aug. 19, 1784
Nov. 1, 1784 to Dec. 24, 1784
New York City
Jan. 11, 1785 to Nov. 13, 1788
New York City
October 6, 1788 to March 3,1789
New York City
March 3,1789 to August 12, 1790
December 6,1790 to May 14, 1800       
Washington DC
November 17,1800 to Present

America’s Four United Republics
Curriculum Supplement

By: Stanley and Naomi Yavneh Klos
, Ph.D.
Christopher I. Klos

ISBN: 978-0-9752627-6-4     LOC: TX 8-071-525 Corporation

                                               America's Four United Republics Curriculum

U.S. Dollar Presidential Coin Mr. Klos vs Secretary Paulson - Click Here

Stanley Yavneh Klos is a Visiting Professor at Loyola University New Orleans and the President of Corporation, a non-profit company dedicated to challenging the public to view history critically through the lens of primary sources that have headlined a plethora of universities, national historic sites, libraries, and museums special exhibits. He has authored four books on primary sources and the U.S. Founding with the last, America’s Four Republics: The More or Less United States, being updated with a high school and college curriculum supplement in 2015. Stan’s education includes a BA in American Studies, BS in Zoology, MA in Rhetorical Theory & Historic Public Address and an ABD in Mass Communications and Marketing. He attended, respectively, St. Peter’s College, Idaho State University and The Pennsylvania State University. 

Naomi Yavneh Klos became the first full-time Director of the University Honors Program at Loyola University New Orleans in 2011, after serving as the Associate Dean of the Honors College at the University of South Florida. A Professor of Languages and Cultures, she is the author of numerous articles on gender and spirituality in the representation of both the virginal and the maternal body in Renaissance Italy, as well as three award-winning essay collections on gender in the early modern world. A former president of the Society for the Study of Early Modern Women and founding director of the Council of Undergraduate Research’s Arts & Humanities division, she is chair of the AJCU Honors Consortium and a member of the Board of Directors of the National Collegiate Honors Council. She is currently writing a book, “Not Just for Jesuits: Ignatian Values in Honors and Beyond.” Dr. Yavneh Klos received her A.B. from Princeton University and her M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of California, Berkeley, all in Comparative Literature with an emphasis in Renaissance Studies. 

Christopher I. Klos is an International Baccalaureate teacher in the Fairfax County, Virginia public school system. Mr. Klos received his Bachelor of Education from St Petersburg College 2010. As an educator, Mr. Klos has been involved in developing curriculum and helped create the first accredited International Baccalaureate World School in Fairfax County, Virginia. As a teacher who is certified by the Kennedy Center's CETA (Changing Education Through the Arts) program and the Smithsonian's Teach it Forward Institute, Mr. Klos aims to enrich learning through the arts and primary resource integration. 

Acknowledgment: A special thanks to Dr. Kenneth Bowling, Co-editor of George Washington University’s First Federal First Federal Congress Project, who was instrumental in the editing of this work.

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