- Aristotle's Rhetoric (Ῥητορική) is an ancient Greek treatise on the art of persuasion, dating from the 4th century BC. The Rhetoric is regarded by most rhetorical scholars as the most important single work on persuasion ever written. The Rhetoric was not intended for publication; it was a collection of students' notes in response to Aristotle’s lectures. The treatise shows the development of Aristotle's thought while a teacher in Athens through two different periods: the first, from 367 to 347 BC (when he was second to Plato in the Academy and the tutor of Alexander the Great), and the second, from 335 to 322 BC, when Aristotle was was the master of his own school, the Lyceum. The Rhetoric illustrates Aristotle's expansion of the study of persuasion beyond Plato's early criticism of it in the Gorgias (ca. 386 BC) and other sophists as immoral, dangerous, and unworthy of serious study. Sophists were a category of teachers who specialized in using the techniques of philosophy and rhetoric for the purpose of teaching excellence and virtue, predominantly to young statesmen and nobility. The practice of charging money for education and providing wisdom only to those who could pay led to the condemnations made by Socrates, through Plato in his dialogues, which portrayed them as "specious" or "deceptive," hence the modern meaning of a Sophist being “a person who reasons with clever but fallacious arguments.” Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle saw rhetoric and poetry as tools that were too often used by Sophists to influence others by manipulating emotion and omitting facts. Plato particularly accused the sophists, including Gorgias and Isocrates, of this instructive manipulation, placing the blame for the arrest and the death of Socrates at the feet of sophistical rhetoric. Aristotle, in stark contrast to the emotional rhetoric and poetry of the sophists, developed a rhetorical theory grounded in philosophy and the pursuit of enlightenment. One of the most important contributions of Aristotle's approach was that he identified rhetoric as one of the three key elements—along with logic and dialectic—of philosophy. Online text: http://rhetoric.eserver.org/aristotle/
- The Rhetorica ad Herennium, formerly attributed to Cicero but actually of unknown authorship, is the oldest surviving Latin book on rhetoric, dating from the late 80s BC. The teaching of rhetorical theory in Latin was inherently controversial because public persuasion was viewed as a political tool, which was closely guarded in the hands of the Greek-speaking upper Roman class. The Rhetorica ad Herennium, therefore, was viewed as a Roman liberal populist work that was most notably introduced by L. Plotius Gallus, who was the first to open a school of rhetoric at Rome in 93 BCE conducted entirely in Latin. The work contains the first known description of the method of loci, a mnemonic technique. Ad Herennium also provides the first complete treatment of memoria (memorization of speeches). Its discussion of elocutio is the oldest surviving systematic treatment of Latin figures of speech, and is filled with examples of contemporary Roman events. This new latin style, was responsible for promoting revolutionary advances in Roman literature, oratory and the introduction of the five rhetorical canons. The Rhetorica ad Herennium resurged as the most popular book on rhetoric along with Cicero's De Inventione, to teach rhetoric theory during the Renaissance. Online text: https://archive.org/details/adcherenniumdera00capluoft
- Golden, James L. Berquist, Goodwin F. and Coleman, William E. The Rhetoric of Western Thought; Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company
- Klos, Stanley Yavneh, America’s Four Republics: The More or Less United States 2nd Edition and AFUR Curriculum, Historic.us Corporation, Palm Harbor, Florida 2015
- Syllabus Quiz: 5%
- Public Speech: Presidential Candidate Persuasive 20%
- Participation and one page/workbook reading responses: 30%
- Paper #1: Free Enterprise causes of the Revolutionary War: 20%
- Paper #2: Article the First and 17th Amendment: 25%
- Speaking Time Limit 6-7 minutes
- Outline Requirements:
- Type your outline.
- Hand your outline right before you present your speech.
- Attach a copy of your class survey designed for the speech.
- List at least three references in Works Cited section.
- Attach one key library electronic source.
- Select a candidate that you personally support because this will allow you to influence your audience to modify their beliefs or to strongly reinforce existing beliefs.
- State your thesis as either a proposition of fact, value, or policy. Your proposition should clearly indicate your position.
- Be sure you know how you want your audience to react, and plan your speech toward that end.
- Your speech should be well organized using the problem-solution, Monroe’s Motivated Sequence (a variation of problem-solution), or statement of reasons pattern. Word your main points in argument form.
- This speech requires you to make careful and thoughtful use of evidence and reasoning. Use at least two types of valid reasoning. Use a variety of supporting materials to develop your arguments.
- Develop at least one counterargument.
- This speech requires you to make careful and thoughtful use of pathos and ethos. Personalize your speech by giving personal anecdotes and/or telling us why the candidate is important to you and your audience (create relevancy).
- A minimum of three sources should be used and verbally identified during your speech.
- Use at least one visual or audio aid to illustrate, emphasize, or clarify your message.
- After you have outlined your speech reduce your ideas to brief notes using 4-5 note cards.
- For your efforts to pay off, you must practice your speech several times prior to your scheduled presentation. Make this your very best delivery using an extemporaneous, conversational, passionate, dynamic, polished, highly persuasive delivery style. Emphasis in grading will be placed on your delivery ad ability to connect with your audience.
- Be prepared to answer questions from the audience after you have concluded your speech.
- Be sure to stay within 30 seconds of the time limits.
- The Persuasive Speech is 50 points = 20% of your grade (see Speech Evaluation Form). Your Classmates grades will be tallied for each speech, averaged and combined with the professors grade on a 50/50 ratio for the final informative speech maximum 50 point grade
- using or attempting to use unauthorized materials in any academic coursework
- copying, falsifying, destroying, or altering another student's work
- submitting the same written work in more than one course without prior written approval
- from the instructors involved
- dishonestly requesting to make up exams, extend deadlines for submitting coursework
- plagiarizing in any form
- Practice signing on for each course through Blackboard.
- Provide regular and alternative e-mail address and phone contact information to each instructor.
- In the event of an interruption to our course due emergency requiring an evacuation or suspension of campus activities, students will:
- Pack textbooks, assignments, syllabi and any other needed materials for each course and bring these during an evacuation/suspension.
- Keep up with course work during the evacuation/suspension as specified on course syllabi and on-line Blackboard courses.
- Complete any reading and/or writing assignments given by professors before emergency began. Assuming a power source is available….
- Log on to university Web site within 48 hours of an evacuation/suspension.
- Monitor the main university site (www.loyno.edu) for general information.
- Log on to each course through Blackboard or e-mail within 48 hours of an evacuation/suspension to receive further information regarding contacting course instructors for assignments, etc.
- Complete Blackboard and/or other online assignments posted by professors (students are required to turn in assignments on time during the evacuation/suspension period and once the university campus has reopened.
- Contact professors during an evacuation/suspension (or as soon as classes resume on campus) to explain any emergency circumstances that may have prevented them from completing expected work.
- Further information about student responsibilities in emergencies is available on the Academic
- Affairs web site: http://academicaffairs.loyno.edu/students-emergency-responsibilities
- Revision of the Syllabus -- I reserve the right to revise this syllabus at any point once this course is in progress. I will inform students of any changes.
MONROE’S MOTIVATED SEQUENCE
(50 pts total tallied as ½ of the 20% on your final grade)
INTRODUCTION (5) ___Creative attention-getter (a WOW statement or action) (1 point) ___Relates topic to audience (why they should care) (1 point) ___Builds credibility (1 point) ___Provides clear preview of the whole speech (main points, re-cap, Q&A) (1 point) ___Uses transition and/or signposts to the first main point (1 point)
MONROE’S MOTIVATED SEQUENCE
(70 pts total tallied as ½ of the 20% on the final grade)