National Continental Congress Exhibit


The 2012 Continental Congress Festival Presents


By: Stanley Yavneh Klos
Edited by: Naomi Yavneh Klos, Ph. D.

High School Curriculum Sample 

  • First United American Republic: United Colonies of North America: 13 British Colonies United in Congress was founded by 12 colonies on September 5th, 1774 (Georgia joined in 1775)  and governed through a British Colonial Continental Congress.  Peyton Randolph and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief;
  • Second United American Republic: The United States of America: 13 Independent States United in Congress was founded by 12 states on July 2nd, 1776 (New York abstained until July 8th), and governed through the United States Continental CongressJohn Hancock and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief; 
  • Third United American Republic: The United States of America: A Perpetual Union was founded by 13 States on March 1st, 1781, with the enactment of the first U.S. Constitution, the Articles of Confederation, and governed through the United States in Congress Assembled.  Samuel Huntington and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief; 
  • Fourth United American Republic: The United States of America: We the People  was formed by 11 states on March 4th, 1789 (North Carolina and Rhode Island joined in November 1789 and May 1790, respectively), with the enactment of the U.S. Constitution of 1787. The fourth and current United States Republic governs through  the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate in Congress Assembled, the U.S. President and Commander-in-Chief, and the U.S. Supreme Court.  George Washington served as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief.

Presidential Alert: After 102 years, the Federal Government finally agrees that Samuel Huntington and not John Hanson was the first USCA President to serve under the Articles of Confederation.  -- Click Here

America's Four Republics: The More or Less United States


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Governor Calvert House across from the Maryland State House

The America’s Four Republics: The More or Less United States Exhibit was free and open to the public from 9:00 am to 9:00 pm on Monday and Tuesday, 9:00 am to 5:00 pm on Wednesday, November 26-28th, 2012, at the Governor Calvert House, 58 State Circle in Annapolis, MD.

This Exhibit's purpose was to support the Annapolis Continental Congress Society's efforts to establish a National Continental Congress Center in Annapolis.





Maryland Capital News Service Report



Welcome to America’s Four Republics: The More or Less United States online exhibit. This non-partisan exhibit illuminates the 15-year political evolution of the United States by showcasing 18th- and early 19th-Century primary sources from each of America’s Four United Republics:

First United American Republic: United Colonies of America: Thirteen British Colonies United in Congress  (September 5th, 1774 to July 1st, 1776) was founded by 12 colonies under the First Continental Congress and expired under the Second Continental Congress;

Second United American Republic: The United States of America: Thirteen Independent States United in Congress (July 2nd, 1776 to February 28th, 1781) was founded by 12 states in the Second Continental Congress and expired with the ratification of the Articles of Confederation;

Third United American Republic: The United States of America: A Not Quite Perpetual Union  (March 1st, 1781 to March 3rd, 1789) was founded by 13 States with the Articles of Confederation’s enactment and expired with the ratification of the U.S. Constitution of 1787;

Fourth United American Republic: The United States of America: We the People (March 4, 1789 to Present) was formed by 11 states with the enactment of the United States Constitution of 1787 and still exists today.




 For More Information go to 
America's Four United Republics


The First United Republic: United Colonies of America


Oil Paintings of Presidents Peyton Randolph and Henry Middleton
Thirteen British Colonies United in a Continental Congress



First United American Republic: United Colonies of America: Thirteen British Colonies United in Congress  (September 5th, 1774 to July 1st, 1776) was founded by 12 colonies under the First Continental Congress and expired under the Second Continental Congress. King George and Queen Charlotte welcome visitors in an oil painting gallery. The section includes 18th-Century letters and manuscripts of United Colonies Continental Congress Presidents Peyton Randolph, Henry Middleton, and John Hancock.  Exhibit highlights include:







Autographed Second Edition

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[KING GEORGE III]  Marriage Declaration of King George III dated July 8, 1761 that “I have, ever since my accession to the throne, turned my thoughts towards the choice of a princess for my consort …I come to a resolution to demand in marriage the princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg Strelitz; a princess distinguished by every eminent virtue.  The London Magazine or Gentleman’s Monthly Intelligencer, July 1761, R. Baldwin, London  - Klos Yavneh Academy Collection



PEYTON RANDOLPH signs a March 4, 1773 Virginia Five Pound Colonial Note.  The note, legal tender in Virginia, is also signed by future Constitution of 1787 signer and Supreme Court Justice John Blair- Loan Courtesy of Louis and Jenna Klos






ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION names the Continental Congress in this rare colonial printing: “Extracts From The Votes And Proceedings Of The American Continental Congress, Held At Philadelphia, On The 5th Of September, 1774 Containing The Bill Of Rights, A List Of Grievances, Occasional Resolves, The Association, An Address To The People Of Great-Britain, And A Memorial To The Inhabitants Of The British American Colonies, Published By Order Of The Congress.” Philadelphia: 1774 - Klos Yavneh Academy Collection






BENJAMIN FRANKLIN’s Proposed Plan of Government in an eight page manuscript entitled: “Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union entered into by the Delegates of the several Colonies … in General Congress met at Philadelphia, May 10, 1775.” [Philadelphia, July 21, 1775]. This is an exceptionally rare and important United Colonial manuscript. Loan Courtesy of Seth Kaller, Inc.





JOHN HANCOCK signs the March 23, 1776 “Privateering Act” which is a United Colonies of America resolution that empowered privateers to harass British shipping. “You may, by Force of Arms, attack, subdue, and take all Ships and other Vessels belonging to the Inhabitants of Great-Britain, on the High Seas ...”  –  Loan Courtesy of Seth Kaller, Inc.




The Second United Republic: United States of America

Oil Paintings of Presidents John Hancock, Henry Laurens, John Jay and Samuel Huntington
Thirteen Independent States United in Congress




Autographed Second Edition


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Second United American Republic: The United States of America: Thirteen Independent States United in Congress (July 2nd, 1776 to February 28th, 1781) was founded by 12 states in the Second Continental Congress and expired with the ratification of the Articles of Confederation.  Richard Henry Lee’s Resolution for Independence is followed by an original July 1776 Declaration of Independence imprint surrounded with rare letters and documents from numerous Declaration of Independence signers, including all those from MarylandThe oil painting gallery continues with documents from three more Presidents of the Continental Congress, John Hancock, Henry Laurens, and John Jay.  Highlights include:




RESOLUTION OF INDEPENDENCE as published in the first few days of July in the Pennsylvania Magazine’s June Pamphlet that was edited by Thomas Paine.  Due to a shortage of paper, this June issue was held past its normal publication date allowing time for the last-minute insertion of the actual July 2, 1776 resolution of the Continental Congress declaring independence from Great Britain. The passage of this resolution marked the end of the United Colonies of America Republic and the beginning of the Second American United Republic:  United States of America, 13 Independent States united in Congress.  On July 3, 1776, John Adams wrote Abigail Adams declaring that “The Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, in the History of America ... It ought to be solemnized with Pomp and Parade, with Shews, Games, Sports, Guns, Bells, Bonfires, and Illuminations from one End of this Continent to the other from this Time forward forever more."  – Loan Courtesy of Seth Kaller, Inc.




Steel Engraving of Abigail Smith Adams from Rufus Wilmot Griswold
The Republican Court; or American Society in the Days of Washington,  1854


[ABIGAIL SMITH ADAMS] is probably the best known of the “Founding Mothers” due to her detailed, intimate and frank letters to her husband, John Adams, written during their frequent and prolonged separations throughout the Revolutionary War and its aftermath.  While John argued in Congress, Abigail managed the farm so that it provided income to support his endeavors  educated and cared for the children, gave birth to a stillborn daughter (John had been home briefly), and, finally, traveled first to France and then to England when her husband became the first Minister to the Court of Great Britain.   She served as wife of the Vice President and then as First Lady during her husband’s one term as President, before he lost his hotly contested bid for a second term to Thomas Jefferson.

Abigail Adams (1744-1818) freely expressed her views regarding the colonies’ bid for independence, and subsequently what form of government the new nation might take, but she is perhaps best known for her thoughts regarding women’s rights, particularly to property and to education.  Women, she believed, should not submit to laws not made in their interest, nor should they be content with the simple role of being companions to their husbands. They should educate themselves and thus be recognized for their intellectual capabilities, in order to guide and influence the lives of their children and husbands.  In a March, 1776, letter to John, she urged him and the Continental Congress to "Remember the ladies, and be more generous and favourable to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the Husbands. Remember all Men would be tyrants if they could.  If particular care and attention is not paid to the Ladies we are determined to foment a Rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any Laws in which we have no voice, or Representation."  - Klos Yavneh Academy Collection  





[DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE] - Copperplate engraving printed on thin wove paper. “In Congress, July 4, 1776. The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America.” Imprint at bottom left, “W. J. STONE SC WASHn” [William Stone for Peter Force, Washington, DC. ca. 1833], 26” x 30”,. By 1820 the original Declaration of Independence, now housed at the National Archives in Washington, D.C., already showed signs of age and wear from handling. John Quincy Adams, then Secretary of State, commissioned William J. Stone to engrave a facsimile – an exact copy –on a copper plate. There is still debate about whether Stone used a “wet” or chemical process to trace the original manuscript, helping to make the exact copy. In 1823, Congress ordered 200 official copies printed on vellum. Fewer than 40 of Stone’s printing on vellum are known to have survived, with at least 21 of those housed in institutions and public collections.

All subsequent exact facsimiles of the Declaration descend from the Stone plate. One of the ways to distinguish the first edition is Stone’s original imprint, top left: “ENGRAVED by W.J. STONE for the Dept. of State by order,” and continued top right: “of J. Q. Adams, Sec of State July 4, 1823.” Sometime after Stone completed his printing, his imprint at top was removed, and replaced with a shorter imprint at bottom left, “W. J. STONE SC WASHn,” as seen on this document, just below George Walton’s printed signature. The shorter imprint was copied on subsequent plates.  This Force printing, the second edition of the first exact facsimile, remains one of the best representations of the Declaration as the manuscript looked over 150 years ago, prior to its nearly complete deterioration – very little of the original is legible today.  - Loan Courtesy of Dan Western




WILLIAM PACA autographed letter signed:  We shall be obliged to you to procure and deliver to Captain John Lynn two pairs of shoes and eleven shirts from detachment of the Continental line to the west River for the protection of the State Ship. With Great Respect, Honorable Sir Your Most Humble and obedient servant William Paca. -- Loan Courtesy of  Michael J. Sullivan of Mt. Victoria.





HENRY LAURENS - blank Military Commission signed as the Second United States Continental Congress President with Charles Thomson signing as Secretary.  Klos Yavneh Academy Collection.








QUEEN CHARLOTTE SOPHIA - A Revolutionary War dated autograph letter signed by Queen Charlotte to her brother written in French on the 19th of February 1779:  
“Sir my brother. It is with great pleasure that I congratulate Your Majesty on the Birth of the Princess, that Riene your very lovely wife comes by the assistance of Divine Providence to put the World, and I share with Your Majesty the joy that this event causes you begging the Quite Powerful that it of a agene from days to days to fill the royal house with all kinds of Benedictions. With my perfect sincerities. Sir my brother, Your good sister, Charlotte. At St. James, 19th February 1779.”
Charlotte Sophia of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, the wife of George III. She married George shortly after his accession to the throne, in 1761. When George III first received his young bride on September 9, 1761, at the garden gate of St James's Palace, he was supposedly taken aback by her lack of beauty. It became evident, though, that the pious and modest Strelitz princess soon conquered his heart and willingly submitted to his strong influence over her. In the first twenty-one years of her marriage Queen Charlotte gave birth to fifteen children, nine sons and six daughters. Their eldest son was the future George IV, born in 1762. In contrast to most European Royal houses George III and Charlotte had a harmonious marriage. Charlotte played a prominent, though reticent, role on the stage of European world history. As Queen of England and consort of George III she became an eyewitness of a turbulent age. -- Klos Yavneh Academy Collection






JOHN JAY May 28, 1779, Presidential letter to Governor Patrick Henry transmitting the “Address of Congress to the Inhabitants of the United States” imploring the populace to maintain its resolve, and to be wary of insidious reports that the new government was failing in the wake of the collapsing U.S. Continental Dollar.  Loan Courtesy of Forgotten Founders, CT




SAMUEL HUNTINGTON -   Autograph Letter Signed, as President of the Continental Congress, from the Philadelphia. July 23, 1780. Huntington writes to Jeremiah Wadsworth indicating that he will have the delegates from Connecticut "use their endeavors to have one or more commissioners immediately sent into Connecticut...to settle your accounts” - Loan Courtesy of ForgottenFounders






[SAMUEL HUNTINGTON] Displayed is $5 and $50 Continental Currency, 1783 Spanish Milled Silver Dollar,  with the 1780 Journals of Congress resolution that increases, from 1 to 40 the amount of US dollars required to redeem one Spanish Silver dollar from the U.S. Treasury. This resolution effectively reduced the US National debt from 200 Million to 5 million Spanish Silver Dollars “Pieces Of Eight” Loan Courtesy of Forgotten Founders, CT







SAMUEL HUNTINGTON - Philadelphia, 24 February 1781. A REVOLUTIONARY WAR-DATE MILITARY APPOINTMENT of Isaac Bronson, Esq., as a "Surgeon's Mate in Col. Sheldons regiment of Light Dragoons from the 15 Nov. 1779." Partly printed document signed ("Sam. Huntington"), AS PRESIDENT OF The Continental Congress,  co-signed by Joseph Carleton, Secretary of the Board of War.   The partly printed Commission document, although signed five days before the adoption of the Articles of Confederation, was printed in the United States in Congress Assembled form anticipating ratification.





The Third United Republic: United States of America
Oil Paintings of Presidents Thomas McKean, John Hanson, and Elias Boudinot

Oil Paintings of Presidents Thomas Mifflin, Richard Henry Lee, Nathaniel Gorham, and Arthur St. Clair
A Not Quite Perpetual Union



Autographed Second Edition

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Third United American Republic: The United States of America: A Not Quite Perpetual Union  (March 1st, 1781 to March 3rd, 1789) was founded by 13 States with the Articles of Confederation’s enactment and expired with the ratification of the U.S. Constitution of 1787. Featured here is the Treaty of Paris Proclamation & Presidential oil painting gallery displayed above letters and manuscripts of the ten USCA Presidents under the Articles of Confederation: Samuel Huntington, Thomas McKean, John Hanson, Elias Boudinot, Thomas Mifflin, Richard Henry Lee, John Hancock, Nathaniel Gorham, Arthur St. Clair, and Cyrus Griffin. 



[SAMUEL HUNTINGTON]  THE FIRST ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION CONGRESS SESSION as printed  in the “Journals of The United States in Congress Assembled, that were "published by order of Congress."  The Journals are opened to March 2, 1781 recording the Articles of Confederation adoption as the first U.S. Constitution and the first convening of the United States in Congress Assembled with  Samuel Huntington as the first President to serve under the Constitution of 1777Loan Courtesy of Forgotten Founders, CT.






THOMAS MCKEAN - Philadelphia, July 20, 1781,  Military Commission appointing Alexander Murray as Lieutenant in the Continental Army Signed by McKean as the Second United States in Congress Assembled President  along with Joseph Carleton as Board of War Secretary - Klos Yavneh Academy Collection






JOHN HANSON  Military Commission signed as the Third United States in Congress Assembled President and Charles Thomson as USCA Secretary.  - Loan Courtesy of  Rick Badwey, Museum Framing.






[JOHN HANSON] October 16th, 1782 Thanksgiving Proclamation.  Hanson's USCA issued this most notable Proclamation of a call for Public Thanksgiving to God due to the favorable news trickling in on the negotiations of Peace with Great Britain." Day of Humiliation, Fasting and Prayer - It being the indispensable duty of all nations, not only to offer up their supplications to Almighty God, the giver of all good, for his gracious assistance in the a time of public distress, but also in a solemn and public manner to give him praise for his goodness in general, and especially for great and signal interpositions of his Providence in their behalf... " - Loan Courtesy of Forgotten Founders CT 







JOHN HANSON and Charles Thomson signed military Commission  "Witnessed of His Excellency,  John Hanson, President of the United States in Congress Assembled." - Loan Courtesy of Rick Badwey, Museum Framing




Dr. Naomi Yavneh Klos discussing the importance of the George Washington letter to James McHenry. 


GEORGE WASHINGTON, August 15th, 1782, autographed letter signed as Commander-in-Chief to James McHenry. In this highly personal letter, Washington offers a glimpse of the man behind the otherwise stolid image. After victory at Yorktown, Americans were awaiting news of a final peace treaty from Paris. Washington remained head of the Continental Army, and warily watched British General Sir Henry Clinton’s army in New York City. For all its friendly tone and nebulous phrases, Washington and McHenry are actually discussing the very serious business of funding and maintaining troop levels to discourage future British actions.   –    Loan Courtesy of Seth Kaller, Inc.



Steel Engraving of Martha Custis Washington from Rufus Wilmot Griswold
The Republican Court; or American Society in the Days of Washington,  1854



[MARTHA CUSTIS WASHINGTON]  was a widowed mother of four when she married George Washington on January 6, 1759, Martha Washington provided her husband with both the family life and the financial resources to become one of the leading figures in Virginia society and politics.  When her husband became Commander in Chief of the Continental Army, Martha became a symbolic figure of patriotic sacrifice, enduring long separations from her husband to manage the family plantation in his absence, and then leaving her home of Mount Vernon for months each year to spend winters at the army encampments.  There, she visited troops, listened to petitions as an intermediary for George, and offered hospitality to visiting dignitaries, as well as officers and their wives.  Everywhere she traveled, she was feted as a patriot and a celebrity – a situation that would  continue into her life as first First Lady, or “Lady Presidentess,” as she was known.

“Lady Washington” was quite conscious that her behaviour as president’s wife would set the tone for subsequent women in her position, and she sought to be above reproof.  She and her husband determined that they could accept no gifts or even invitations from individuals, for fear of seeming to favour one party or faction over another.  Accordingly, she wrote to her niece, she often felt “more like a state prisoner than anything else!”  Nevertheless, she was a frequent hostess and held weekly receptions on Friday nights, when Congressmen and their wives, visiting dignitaries, and well-dressed members of the community could come, be introduced to the First Lady, enjoy refreshments, and mingle with each other.  Although some criticized these gatherings as too similar to behaviour at the British Court, most recognized them as symbolic of the new democracy, where people of various views and walks of life might come together amicably.

Like George Washington, Martha was finally able to return to private life in 1797, when her husband refused a third term as president.  She continued to live at Mount Vernon following his death, and died there in 1802. Klos Yavneh Academy Collection






ELIAS BOUDINOT, July 9th, 1783, letter signed as Third President of the United States in Congress Assembled written to Major General Arthur St. Clair; "You may depend on Congress having been perfectly satisfied with your conduct." St. Clair, on June 20th, 1783 was instrumental in dispersing 400 mutinous federal soldiers who, under arms, surrounded Independence Hall while the USCA and Pennsylvania Supreme Council were in separate sessions. Due to this mutiny, the USCA relocated the U.S. Seat of Government to Princeton, New Jersey. - Loan Courtesy of Dan Western



Steel Engraving of Sarah Livingston Jay from Rufus Wilmot Griswold
The Republican Court; or American Society in the Days of Washington,  1854
United Colonies and States First Ladies
1774-1788

United Colonies Continental Congress
President
18th Century Term
Age
Elizabeth "Betty" Harrison Randolph (1745-1783)
09/05/74 – 10/22/74
29
None
Henry Middleton
10/22–26/74
n/a
Elizabeth "Betty" Harrison Randolph (1745–1783)
05/20/ 75 - 05/24/75
30
Dorothy Quincy Hancock Scott (1747-1830)
05/25/75 – 07/01/76
28
United States Continental Congress
President
Term
Age
Dorothy Quincy Hancock Scott (1747-1830)
07/02/76 – 10/29/77
29
None
Henry Laurens
11/01/77 – 12/09/78
n/a
12/ 10/78 – 09/28/78
22
Martha Huntington (1738/39–1794)
09/29/79 – 02/28/81
41
United States in Congress Assembled
President
Term
Age
Martha Huntington (1738/39–1794)
03/01/81 – 07/06/81
42
Sarah Armitage McKean  (1756-1820)
07/10/81 – 11/04/81
25
Jane Contee Hanson (1726-1812)
11/05/81 - 11/03/82
55
Hannah Stockton Boudinot (1736-1808)
11/03/82 - 11/02/83
46
Sarah Morris Mifflin (1747-1790)
11/03/83 - 11/02/84
36
Anne Gaskins Pinkard Lee (1738-1796)
11/20/84 - 11/19/85
46
Dorothy Quincy Hancock Scott (1747-1830)
11/23/85 – 06/06/86
38
Rebecca Call Gorham (1744-1812)
06/06/86 - 02/01/87
42
Phoebe Bayard St. Clair (1743-1818)
02/02/87 - 01/21/88
43
Christina Stuart Griffin (1751-1807)
01/22/88 - 01/29/89
36



[SARAH LIVINGSTON JAY] toasts written for the Ball in Honor of the Signing of the Definitive Treaty of Paris, September 3rd, 1783

Although Sarah Jay – a very popular figure in French society at this time and a close friend of both the Marquis de Lafayette and his wife – planned an elaborate ball to celebrate the signing, she herself was unable to attend, due to the birth of her daughter, Ann, in August.

It has been argued by Landa M. Freeman, Louise V. North and Janet M. Wedge, editors of Selected Letters of John Jay and Sarah Livingston Jay (2003), that the toasts here were not actually written by Sarah for John to read at the ball, but were rather those of John, recited on July 4th, 1783, when peace was imminent.  According to the editors, the toasts were transcribed by Mrs. Jay and sent in a letter to her sister, Kitty.

No matter what the provenance of the toasts – husband or wife – they express patriotism, a profound gratitude for the assistance of other nations, and a deep sensitivity to both the benefits and costs of hard-won liberty.

  1. The United States of America, may they be perpetual.
  2. The Congress.
  3. The King & Nation of France.
  4. General Washington and the American Army.
  5. The United Netherlands & all other free States in the world.
  6. His Catholic Majesty & all other Princes & Powers who have manifested Friendship to America.
  7. The Memory of the Patriots who have fallen for their Country.  May kindness be shown to their widows & children.
  8. The French Officers & Army who served in America.
  9. Gratitude to our Friends & Moderation to our Enemies
  10. May all our Citizens be soldiers, & all our soldiers Citizens.
  11. Concord, Wisdom & Firmness to all American Councils.
  12. May our Country be always prepared for War, but disposed to Peace.
  13. Liberty & Happiness to all Mankind.  Klos Yavneh Academy Collection


[SARAH SIDDONS], who was born 5 July 5th, 1755 and died  June 8th,  1831, was a Welsh actress, the best-known tragedienne of the 18th century. This 1783 steel engraving of Mrs. Siddons is from the The Lady’s Magazine, or Entertaining Companion for the Fair Sex, appropriated solely to their Use and Amusement; London, 1783.  This Magazine was one of the most enduring and influential periodicals of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century.  For six-pence a copy, readers were provided with a monthly miscellany promising to both entertain and educate.  Short stories, serialized fiction and poetry were combined with historical accounts, essays extolling the female virtues of propriety and modesty, advice for wives and mothers, information on fashion, recipes, medicinal “receipts” offering cures for maladies from cramps to “hectic fevers,” accounts of trials, biographies of famous historical and contemporary figures (the 1783 volume, for example, contains a serialized narrative of the loves of Elizabeth I), enigmas, rebuses and domestic and foreign news reports (including the signing of the Treaty of Paris).  Much of the content came not just from known literary figures, but from the readers themselves, making this a true stylistic “miscellany.”  Along with the written articles each month were several beautiful copperplate engravings of theatrical productions referenced in the text, or illustrating feminine virtues, as well as at least one music manuscript.

The March 1783 edition contains an engraving of the celebrated British Actress, Mrs. Siddons, in The Grecian Daughter, a popular play of the period, with a quote: “In these caves I know he pines for want.”  John Jay, visiting London on business after signing the Treaty of Paris in September, writes to his wife, on October 28th, 1783, “I was last Evening at the Drury Lane Theatre, where the celebrated Mrs. Siddons displayed her Talents in the Character of Belvidera, to which she did ample Justice.  The House is neat and well lighted, but not so magnificent as those at Paris ….”

The 16-year old John Quincy Adams also saw Mrs. Siddons, in another production, and writes on November 4th to Jay’s 16-year old nephew Peter Jay Munro far more effusively: “Dear Moron, On Friday evening, I went… to see that wonderful, wonderful, wonder of wonders Mrs. Siddons The most capital performer upon the Stage; not only of Europe, at present, but that ever was seen….[The Fatal Marriage] is the deepest Tragedy I ever saw or read; and I must confess I never saw any player, so possessed of the pathetic, as this said Mrs. Siddons.  All the audience were in Tears and there was a young lady in the next box to us, who was so near falling into fits that she was obliged to be taken away.  I am told it is not uncommon here…"  Klos Yavneh Academy Collection



THOMAS STONE – A December 9, 1783 letter signed written to the Honorable Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer who has docketed and boldly signed Thomas Stone. The letter discusses the opinions of why the Port Tobacco Court House was not moved to Chapel Point. -- Loan Courtesy of  Michael J. Sullivan of Mt. Victoria.






THOMAS MIFFLIN - Military Commission as President of the United States in Congress Assembled dated February 22, 1784: The United States in Congress Assembled to Jno. Campbell. Gentleman Greeting.  -- Loan Courtesy of Forgotten Founders, CT



THOMAS MIFFLIN, January 14th, 1784,  “By the UNITED STATES in CONGRESS Assembled, A PROCLAMATION” Broadside announcing the ratification of the Treaty of Paris ending the Revolutionary War and confirming United States Sovereignty.  This is one of only two known completed with the official seal, and signatures of Thomas Mifflin as “Our President” and Charles Thomson as Secretary of the United States in Congress Assembled convening in Annapolis. The only other known complete copy signed by the President and Secretary is in the National Archives.   – Loan Courtesy of Seth Kaller, Inc.





CHARLES THOMSON, April 30, 1784, Broadside USCA resolution that requests from the States the power to regulate trade signed as USCA Secretary.
“Unless the United States in Congress...shall be vested with powers competent to the protection of commerce, they can never command reciprocal advantages in trade... without these, our foreign commerce must decline and eventually be annihilated. Hence it is necessary that the states should be explicit, and fix on some effectual mode by which foreign commerce not founded on principles of equality may be restrained…. Resolved, that it be, and it hereby is recommended to the legislatures of the several states, to vest the United States in Congress assembled, for the term of fifteen years, with power to prohibit any goods, wares or merchandize from being imported into or exported from any of the states, in vessels belonging to or navigated by the subjects of any power with whom these states shall not have formed treaties of Commerce.”
A very important resolution addressing a major shortcoming of government under the Articles of Confederation. That resolution was passed in reaction to Britain’s adopted regulations which severely hampered American commerce with the West Indies and other nations, and signified an attempt to counteract Britain’s powerful stranglehold on American trade. Virginia agreed to the request in this resolution, but several other states did not follow suit. The continuing inability to address this failure was one of the major factors leading to the Constitutional Convention three years later. The power of Congress to regulate trade would be written into the Constitution in 1787. - Loan Courtesy of Seth Kaller, Inc.




Western Land Ordinance



RICHARD HENRY LEE - WESTERN LAND ORDINANCE OF 1785 – The Pennsylvania Packet and Daily Advertiser, Monday, May 30, 1785, printing of the Western Land Ordinance dated May 20, 1785 and signed in type by Richard Henry Lee as President of the United States in Congress Assembled and Charles Thomson as Secretary of the United States in Congress Assembled. The Western Land Ordinance of 1785 put the 1784 Land Ordinance into operation by providing a mechanism for selling and settling the land.  The federal surveyors divided the land into carefully planned individual square townships. Each side of the township square was to be six miles in length containing thirty-six square miles of territory. The township was then divided into one-square mile sections, with each section receiving its own number and encompassing 640 acres. Section sixteen was to be set aside for a public school and sections eight, eleven, twenty-six, and twenty-nine were to provide veterans of the American Revolution with land as payment for their service during the war, thus greatly reducing the war debt. The government would then sell the remaining sections at public auction at the minimum bid of 640 dollars per section or one dollar for an acre of land in each section. -  Klos Yavneh Academy Collection





KING GEORGE III - Autograph letter signed framed 27” x 28”, dated September 2, 1786 to an unnamed friend. Letter discusses the design of the Theological Pivre Medal, the health of Elizabeth (his daughter), and his friend’s horseback riding:
My Good Lord, Yesterday I received from Burch his design for the Reverse of the Theological Pivre Medal, think, I now communicate to you this only Alterations I have proposed is that the Anfs shall not appear so well finished but of ruder workmanship and the name of the University as well as the year placed at bottom as on the other Medal. We have had some alarm from a spasmatick attack on the breast of Elizabeth which occasioned some inflammation but by the skill of Sir George Baker She is now just fully recovered and in a few days will resume riding on horseback which has certainly this Summer agreed with her. I am sure to find by a letter Mr. Delany has had from Mr. Montagu that you are preparing to do the same as I am certain it will contribute to Your Health, which I flatter myself is improved by your proposing to attempt it this Season. Believe me even My Good Lord, Your Most Affectionately, George R Windsor Sept 2, 1786.
George III was born in 1738, son of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta. He married Charlotte of Mecklinburg-Strelitz in 1761 and produced fifteen children. George was diagnosed with porphyria, a mental disease which disrupted his reign as early as 1765. George III succeeded his grandfather, George II, in 1760; his father Frederick, Prince of Wales, had died in 1751 having never ruled. George's plan of taxing the American colonies to pay for military protection for Britain led to the Revolutionary War in 1775. The colonists proclaimed independence in 1776, but George continued the war until the American victory at Yorktown in 1781. The Peace of Versailles, signed in 1783, ensured British acknowledgment of the United States of America. George’s political power decreased when William Pitt the Younger became Prime Minister in 1783. George reclaimed some of his power, driving Pitt from office from 1801-04, but his condition worsened again and he ceased to rule in 1811. Personal rule was given to his son George, the Prince Regent. George III died blind, deaf and mentally ill at Windsor Castle in 1820.





JOHN HANCOCK [Boston?]. Sept. 15-Dec. 16, 1786. 2 pp. manuscript ledger that lists items purchased (presumably) and their cost, from Sept. 15 through Dec. 16, 1786. The list consists largely of tea, sugar and spices. Background:  During the period this ledger was written, Hancock was serving as a delegate from Massachusetts to the United States in Congress Assembled. This year, 1786, was a hiatus in his governorship of Massachusetts (which resumed in 1787).  He was elected to the one year term of President of the United States on November 23, 1785.  He never reported for office claiming illness.  David Ramsay and Nathaniel Gorham served out his Presidential term doing all his duties as "Chairman" of the United States in Congress Assembled.  This ledger proves, however, that Hancock was quite active because this large quantity of goods purchased may reflect his renewed involvement in the merchant business during that time.  Klos Yavneh Academy Collection





NATHANIEL GORHAM (1738-1796) Autograph letter signed ("Nathaniel Gorham") to the merchants Messrs. Reynell & Coates, Charlestown, Massachusetts, 5 November 1772. HANCOCK'S SUCCESSOR AS PRESIDENT OF THE United States in Congress Assembled talks business with his Philadelphia merchants. "Capt. Hinkley...wrote you desiring you to ship me 2 tons Barr Iron which I take this opportunity to desire you to alter & in the room of it to send six Tons pig Iron & if you cannot get pig Iron then to send the Barr Iron as afore mentioned." Gorham, a native of Charlestown, was an active participant in the Revolutionary movement from the early 1770s. He served in the Massachusetts legislature from 1771 to 1775, and in the Continental Congress from 1782-1783 and again from 1785 to 1787. It was during that second tour of duty that he was selected to replace Hancock as President of the Congress. He also served as assistant President of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787, holding the presiding chair in Washington's absence.  Klos Yavneh Academy Collection







ARTHUR ST CLAIR - A rare partly printed document signed on parchment 12" x 7½" dated October 20th, 1787, New York. This Articles of Confederation Military Commission is for the appointment of Jacob Kingsbury as Lieutenant in the Army of the United States. The document is boldly signed "Ar. St. Clair" as President of The United States of America in Congress Assembled. The appointment is countersigned by "H(enry) Knox" as Secretary of War with an intact United States War Department Seal. - Loan Courtesy of Rick Badwey, Museum Framing






CYRUS GRIFFIN - Military Commission executed as President of the United States in Congress Assembled appointing Asa Hartshorn to the rank of Ensign in the newly formed United States Army on October 11, 1788. The commission is also signed by the nation's first Secretary of War, Henry Knox.  Klos Yavneh Academy Collection


Cyrus Griffin oil Painting with Exhibit's Welcome Sign


THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION OF 1787 is displayed here in The American Museum’s September’s issue, which has the very distinguished honor of being the first magazine to print the U.S. Constitution of 1787. At its conclusion are the signatures in type of George Washington and other members of the Constitutional Convention, listed by state. Displayed with a full printing of the 1786 Annapolis Convention proceedings Klos Yavneh Academy Collection


The Fourth United Republic: United States of America

We the People



Autographed Second Edition


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Fourth United American Republic: The United States of America: We the People (March 4, 1789 to Present) was formed by 11 states with the enactment of the United States Constitution of 1787 and still exists today. This section is filled with key 18th Century founding letters, documents and manuscripts from President George Washington, Vice President John Adams, and cabinet members Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, Henry Knox and Edmond Randolph.  This section also addresses the 1790’s real estate collapse. North American Land Company “REIT,” and the imprisonment of Robert Morris with a letter from debtor’s prison.  Klos Yavneh Academy Collection -   Fourth Republic Highlights include:






VICE PRESIDENT JOHN ADAMSJanuary 24, 1795, autograph letter signed to Winthrop Sargent that obsesses over the survival of civilization in the wake of the French Revolution.  “It would be very consistent with the present professed Principles to destroy every Type and Press as Engines of Aristocracy, and murder every Pen and Ink Man as aiming at superiority. I hope in all Events that Religion and Learning will find an Asylum in America.”     - Loan Courtesy of Seth Kaller, Inc.




SECRETARY OF STATE THOMAS JEFFERSON printed “An Act declaring the consent of Congress to a certain Act of the State of Maryland, and … an Act declaring the assent of Congress to certain Acts of the States of Maryland, Georgia and Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations….”  signed “Th: Jefferson, Secretary” Unless granted permission by Congress, the Constitution forbade States from collecting duties on imports, exports, or vessel tonnage. However, Congress regularly granted permission for individual states to levy imposts or duties to be used for the improvement of their harbors and waterways. These permissions were regularly renewed, sometimes for decades. Here, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson certifies a copy of the Congressional Act that was constitutionally required for individual states to levy tonnage duties.  Loan Courtesy of Seth Kaller, Inc.






ROBERT MORRIS - Autograph letter signed "Robt Morris," dated Philadelphia, 9th March 1798, to John Nicholson, his partner in speculating, from debtors' prison. "The enclosed letters of the 7th from the trustees came hither last night. It appears that they grow sore under your letters and I confess that the reply as to Oden I expected after taking a copy. I suppose you will return this letter with such remarks as may occur." -  Loan Courtesy of Dan Western




United States in Congress Assembled

Annapolis Session

Eight USCA Unicameral Congresses 
March 1, 1781 to March 3, 1788





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  • First USCA:  Convened March 2, 1781 with Samuel Huntington and Thomas McKean serving as Presidents in Philadelphia at the Pennsylvania State House.
  • Second USCA: Convened November 5, 1781 with John Hanson serving as President and convened in Philadelphia at the Pennsylvania State House.
  • Third USCA: Convened November 4, 1782 with Elias Boudinot serving as President in Philadelphia at the Pennsylvania State House, in Princeton at the Prospect House and the College of New Jersey’s Nassau Hall.
  • Fourth USCA: Convened November 3, 1783 with Thomas Mifflin serving as President in Princeton at the College of New Jersey’s Nassau Hall and Annapolis at the Maryland State House.
  • Fifth USCA: Convened November 29, 1784 with Richard Henry Lee serving as President in Trenton at the French Arms Tavern and in New York City at the Old New York City Hall.
  • Sixth USCA: Convened November 23, 1785 with John Hancock & Nathaniel Gorham elected Presidents but Hancock did not serve due to illness.   Congress convened in New York City at the Old New York City Hall.
  • Seventh USCA: Convened February 2, 1787 with Arthur St. Clair serving as President in New York City at the Old New York City Hall.
  • Eighth USCA: Convened January 21, 1788 with Cyrus Griffin serving as President in New York City at the Old New York City Hall and Fraunces Tavern.


Annapolis USCA  Fourth Session 
December 13, 1783 to August 9, 1784




Important Events and Key USCA Annapolis Legislation 


  • On December 23rd, 1783 the USCA holds a public session accepting George Washington's resignation  as Commander-in-Chief with seven states present.
  • On January 14th, 1784 the USCA ratifies the Paris Definitive Treaty of Peace with nine states present. In compliance with the treaty the USCA recommends that the states "provide for the restitution of" confiscated loyalist property.  
  • On January 30th, 1784 the USCA grants the necessary Canton ship’s papers to the Empress of China for opening U.S. trade to the Far East.
  • On February 3th, 1784 Congress creates a post of undersecretary to revive office for foreign affairs. On March 2nd they elect Henry Remsen under secretary for foreign affairs but deadlock over the appointment of a new US Secretary of Foreign Affairs.
  • On March 24th, 1784 Major General Baron Steuben Inspector General resigns and the USCA accepts on April 15, 1784. 
  • On April 9th, 1784 King George III accepts the USCA nine state January 14th, 1784 ratification proclamation and ratifies the Definitive Treaty of Peace ending the Revolutionary War.
  • On April 23th, 1784 Thomas Jefferson’s Land Ordinance of 1784 is passed as the first step of Northwest Territory settlement under federal jurisdiction.
  • May 7th, 1784 the USCA appoints John Jay US Secretary for Foreign Affairs. 
  • Committee of States convenes on July 8, 1784 and meets intermittently until August 9, 1784 when it collapses. The chief lesson that comes from  the Committee of the States was that an executive of the plurality was not an effective form of government.  This lesson ultimately resulted in the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 creating a separate executive branch of government  in its tripartite system, the President and Commander-in-Chief of the United States of America.


Delegates Serving in the Annapolis USCA Session





Connecticut
  • Roger Sherman  Elected: October 9,1783 Annapolis Attendance: January 13 to June 4,1784
  • James Wadsworth Elected: October 9,1783 to Annapolis Attendance: January 13 to June 3,1784 



Delaware
  • Gunning Bedford, Jr. , Elected: February 1, 1783,   Annapolis Attendance: March 8-13, 1784.
  • Eleazer McComb, Elected: February 1, 1783 Annapolis Attendance: December 13, 1783, to January 17, 1784.
  • James Tilton, Elected: February 1, 1783 Annapolis Attendance: December 13, 1783, to March 13, 1784



Georgia
  • John Houstoun  Elected: January 9, 1784  Annapolis Attendance: June 30 to August 13, 1784



Maryland
  • Jeremiah Townley Chase, Elected: December 9,1783  Annapolis Attendance: December 15, 1783, to March 8, 1784; March 17 to April 5; April 12 to June 4; June 28 to August 9; August 12-19,1784
  • Edward Lloyd, Elected: November 26, 1783, Annapolis Attendance: December 13-27, 1783; January 2 to February 6, 1784.
  • James McHenry, Elected: November 26, 1783 Annapolis Attendance: December 13-27, 1783; March 27 to April 29; May 31 to June 3; August 10-11, 1784
  • Thomas Stone,  Elected: November 26,1783  Annapolis Attendance:  March 26 to June 3,1784



Massachusetts
  • Francis Dana,  Elected:  February 11, 1784 Annapolis Attendance:  May 24 to June 4; June 26 to August 10,1784
  • Elbridge Gerry, Elected: June 27, 1783, Annapolis Attendance: December 13, 1783, to June 3, 1784.
  • Samuel Osgood, Elected: July 9, 1783,   Annapolis Attendance: December 13, 1783, to March 1, 1784.
  • George Partridge, Elected: June 28, 1783, Annapolis Attendance:  December 13, 1783, to June 3, 1784.



New Hampshire
  • Jonathan Blanchard, Elected: December 26, 1783, Annapolis Attendance: March 1 to June 4; June 26 to August 9, 1784
  • Abiel Foster, 12-13-1783   Elected: Elected: February 19, 1783  and December 26, 1783, Annapolis Attendance: December 13, 1783, to June 3, 1784



New Jersey
  • John Beatty, Elected: November 6, 1783, Annapolis Attendance: January 13 to June 3,1784 
  • Samuel Dick Elected: November 6, 1783, Annapolis Attendance: February 25 to June 4, 1784; July 5 to August 11, 1784.
  • John Stevens, Elected: November 6, 1783, Annapolis Attendance: May 20 to June 3, 1784



New York
  • Charles DeWitt,  Elected: February 3, 1784,  Annapolis Attendance:  March 27 to June 4, 1784
  • Ephraim Paine, Elected: February 3, 1784,  Annapolis Attendance:  March 25 to June 3, 1784



North Carolina
  • Benjamin Hawkins, Elected: April 25, 1783   Annapolis Attendance:  December 13-20, 1783
  • Hugh Williamson, Elected: April 23, 1783  Annapolis Attendance:  December 13, 1783 to May 13, 1784; May 17 to June 3, 1784
  • Richard Dobbs Spaight, Elected: May 11, 1783   Annapolis Attendance:   December 13, 1783 to February 13, 1784; February 23 to May 13; May 17 to June 4; June 30 to August 19, 1784



Pennsylvania
  • Edward Hand, Elected: November 12, 1783, Annapolis Attendance: December 24, 1783 to February 5, 1784; March 27 to June 4; June 26 to August 19, 1784.
  • Thomas Mifflin, Elected: November 12, 1783, Annapolis Attendance: December 13, 1783, to March 8, 1784; March 15-27; April 1 to June 3, 1784.  He served as President during the Annapolis Session.
  • John Montgomery, Elected: November 12, 1783,   Annapolis Attendance: January 22 to March 19; March 25 to April 1; April 13 to June 3, 1784.
  • Cadwalader Morris, Elected: November 12, 1783,  Annapolis Attendance: December 13, 1783, to January 15, 1784,



Rhode Island
  •  William Ellery, Elected: May 7, 1783,  Annapolis Attendance: December 13, 1783, to June 4, 1784
  • David Howell, Elected: May 5, 1784,   Annapolis Attendance: December 13, 1783, to June 3, 1784



South Carolina
  • Jacob Read, Elected: February 12, 1783,  Annapolis Attendance: December 13, 1783 to June 4, 1784
  • Richard Beresford, Elected: March 15, 1783    Annapolis Attendance:  January - 14 to June 3, 1784



Virginia
  • Samuel Hardy, Elected: June 6, 1783, Annapolis Attendance: December 13-21, 1783; February 24 to June 4, 1784; June 26 to August 19, 1784.
  • Thomas Jefferson, Elected: June 6, 1783, Annapolis Attendance: December 13, 1783 to April 12, 1784. Thomas Jefferson was elected Chairman of the United States in Congress assembled on March 12, 1784  and elected  Chairman again on March, 30 1784 to preside during Thomas Mifflin’s Absence.
  • Arthur Lee, Elected: June 6, 1783   Annapolis Attendance:  December 13, 1783 to April 12, 1784; May 5 to June 3, 1784. 
  • John Francis Mercer, Elected: June 6, 1783,  Annapolis Attendance:   March 19 to June 3, 1784 
  • James Mercer,  Elected: June 6, 1783; June 22, 1784, Annapolis Attendance:   March 19 to June 3, 1784
  • James Monroe, Elected: June 6, 1783  Annapolis Attendance:   December 13, 1783 to April 14, 1784; April 23 to June 3, 1784 

Chronology of the Fourth USCA Session

1783 - November 3 Convenes new Congress in Princeton; elects Thomas Mifflin president (elects Daniel Carroll chairman in the president's absence). November 4 Authorizes discharge of the Continental Army- "except 500 men, with proper officers." Adjourns to Annapolis, to reconvene the 26th.

December 13 Reconvenes at Annapolis. December 15 Fails to convene quorum. December 16 Reads foreign dispatches. December 17 Fails to convene quorum. December 22 Holds a public ball for General Washington. December 23 Appeals to unrepresented states to maintain congressional attendance; receives Washington and accepts his resignation as Commander-in-Chief. December 27 Receives report on capital location. December 29

1784 - January 1 Fails to convene quorum. 1784 January 3 Resolves to receive Francis Dana, "relative to his mission to the Court of Russia." January 5 Rejects proposal to nominate knights to the Polish Order of Divine Providence. January 8 Debates Quaker petition for suppression of the slave trade. January 10 Fails to convene quorum. January 14 Ratifies definitive treaty of peace, "nine states being present"; recommends that the states "provide for the restitution of" confiscated loyalist property. January 15 Acquiesces in public creditor demand that loan office certificate interest not be subject to depreciation. January 17-20 Fails to convene quorum. January 21 Rejects motion denying Continental jurisdiction in Lusannah admiralty appeal. January 22 Halts plan to dispose of military stores. January 23 Sets date for selecting judges to determine "the private right of soil" in the Wyoming Valley. January 26 Narrows half-pay eligibility rules. January 27-28 Fails to convene quorum. January 30 Grants sea-letters for The Empress of China voyage to Canton.

February 3 Creates post of undersecretary to revive office for foreign affairs. February 4-5 Fails to convene quorum. February 6 Issues brevet promotions for departing foreign officers. February 7-9 Fails to convene quorum. February 10 Plans general treaty with Native American nations of the northern department. February 11 Registers commissions of five French consuls and five vice-consuls. February 12 Fails to convene quorum. February 16-23 Fails to convene quorum. February 24 Postpones debate on garrisoning frontier posts for failure of nine-state representation. February 27 Commends Marquis de la Rouerie; deadlocks over appointment of a secretary for foreign affairs.

March 1 Receives Indiana Company petition; accepts Virginia cession of western land claims; reads western land ordinance report. March 2 Elects Henry Remsen under secretary for foreign affairs; deadlocks over appointment of a secretary. March 4 Elects commissioners to negotiate with the Native Americans. March 5 Debates plans for holding treaty with the Native Americans. March 10 Fails to convene quorum. March 12 Rejects Connecticut protest against half-pay plan. March 13 Rejects Delaware delegate credentials, exceeding three-year limitation. March 16 Bars appointment of aliens to consular and other foreign posts. March 19 Adopts instructions for Native American commissioners. March 22-25 Postpones debate on Lusannah admiralty appeal. March 23 Rejects credentials of Massachusetts delegate Samuel Osgood. March 26 Affirms that in negotiating commercial treaties these United States be considered . . . as one nation, upon the principles of the federal constitution." March 30 Sets quotas and adopts fiscal appeal to the states; rejects motion denying Continental jurisdiction in Lusannah appeal.

April 1-2 Debates report on negotiating commercial treaties. April 5 Adopts appeal to the states on arrears of interest payments on the public debt. April 6 Reads report on maintaining frontier garrisons. April 8 Instructs agent of marine on sale of Continental ships. April 12 Debates public debt. April 14 Debates motion to adjourn from Annapolis to various proposed sites. April 16 Instructs "commissioners for treating with the Native American nations." April 19 Debates western land ordinance; deletes anti-slavery paragraph. April 20-21 Debates western land ordinance. April 23 Debates western land ordinance. April 24 Receives New York memorial concerning the Vermont dispute.[105]April 26 Resolves to adjourn June 3, to reconvene at Trenton October 30; debates capital's location. April 27-28 Debates public debt. April 28 Orders arrest of Henry Carbery, leader of Pennsylvania mutiny. April 29 Exhorts states to complete western land cessions. April 30 Requests states to vest Congress with power to regulate trade "for the term of fifteen years."

May 3 Reaffirms secrecy rule on foreign dispatches; receives French announcement on opening free ports to US trade. May 5 Debates retrenchment of the civil list. May 7 Sets diplomatic salaries; appoints John Jay secretary for foreign affairs. May 11 Adopts instructions for negotiation of commercial treaties. May 12 Resolves to request delivery of frontier posts to US troops. May 15 Debates disqualification of Rhode Island delegates. May 17 Receives announcement of French Minister La Luzerne's intention to return to France. May 18 Orders troops for the protection of Native American commissioners. May 19-24 Debates disqualification of Rhode Island delegates. May 21-22 Fails to convene quorum. May 25-27 Debates garrisoning frontier posts. May 28 Adopts "Ordinance for putting the department of finance into Commission"; reads proposed land ordinance and report on Native American affairs. May 29 Appoints Committee of the States "to sit in the recess of Congress," and adopts resolutions defining its powers and rules. Offers reward for arrest of chevalier de Longchamps for assault on the French consul general, the marquis de Barbe-Marbois. May 31 Debates garrisoning frontier posts.

June 1 Resolves to meet thrice daily until adjournment. June 2 Orders discharge of Continental troops "except 25 privates to guard the stores at Fort Pitt, and 55 to guard the stores at West Point." June 3 Instructs ministers plenipotentiary not to relinquish navigation of the Mississippi; authorizes call of 700 militiamen to protect the northwestern frontiers; elects three treasury commissioners; adjourns "to meet at Trenton on the 30th day of October.

July 5 Committee of the States convenes, adopts rules, meets in 20 regular sessions to August 3. August 4-19 Committee of the States fails to convene quorum, except briefly on August 9, and dissolves amid controversy.November 1 Convenes at Trenton, two states represented.

2012 Continental Congress Festival Schedule:  In support of the ACCS vision to establish a National Continental Congress Center in Annapolis, the following exhibitors, historians, professors, and experts are scheduled to speak in their respective U.S Founding fields:

Monday, Nov. 26, 2012

·         9:00am: America’s Four Republics: The More or Less United States exhibit opens with Annapolis Town Crier and performances by Forgotten Founders Troubadour Tom Callinan.
·         9:30am: Opening remarks by Mayor Joshua J. Cohen and Maryland State Archivist Dr. Edward Papenfuse.
·    10:00am: “Creating a Continental Navy and Licensing Privateers (1775-1779).” Dr. Glenn Grasso, Historian, writer, and former instructor at the United States Coast Guard Academy and the University of New Hampshire.
·         12 noon:  “The Articles of Confederation Crisis and the Miracle of Philadelphia: The Rise of the Modern Presidency.” Dr. David M. Abshire.  President, the Center for the Study of the Presidency & Congress and former Special Counselor to President Ronald Reagan.
·         2:00 pm:  “How Annapolis was Chosen as the Seat of Congress in 1783.” Dr. Kenneth Bowling, Adjunct Professor of History, the George Washington University.
·         4:00 pm:  “The Dubious Achievement of the First Continental Congress.” James Thompson, Publisher, Commonwealth Books.
·         7:00 pm:  America’s Four Republics: The More or Less United States.” Stanley Yavneh Klos, independent scholar and author, America's Four Republics: The More or Less United States.

Tuesday, Nov. 27, 2012

·         9:00 am: “The Annapolis (1786) and Philadelphia (1787) Conventions..." Dr. William Ewald, Professor of Law, University of Pennsylvania.
·         11:00 am: “The Proper Care and Restoration of Rare Historical Documents.” J. Franklin Mowery, Former Head of Conservation, Folger-Shakespeare Library, Washington DC
·         12:30 pm: “Framing and Displaying Rare Historical Documents.” Rick Badwey, Principal, Museum Framing, Alexandria, VA.
·         1:30 pm: “Shays’ Rebellion and the End of the Articles of Confederation.” Dr. Michael Cain, Associate Professor, political Science, St. Mary's College of Maryland
·         3:30 pm: “The Northwest Ordinance” Stanley Yavneh Klos, independent scholar and author, America’s Four Republics: The More or Less United States.
·         7:00pm: “Remembering the Ladies:  Women and Hospitality in the Promotion of the New Republic.” Dr. Naomi Yavneh Klos, Director, University Honors Program, Loyola University New Orleans. 

Wednesday, Nov. 28, 2012

·         9:00am: “Proclaiming Independence: Surprising Finds from the 1776 Printings of the Declaration and the Articles of Confederation." Seth Kaller, President of Seth Kaller, Inc., historic document dealer and museum collection builder.
·         10:30am: "The Life of James Monroe: Delegate to Congress (1783-86, including George Washington's resignation in Annapolis) and Colonel in the Continental Army (1776-1781)." G. William Thomas Jr., President, the James Monroe Memorial Foundation.
·         12 noon: "Terms and Conditions: The Treaty of Paris Chronology (1783-84)." Dr. R. J. Rockefeller, Assistant Professor of History, Anne Arundel College.
·         1:30pm: "Founding Foods and Drinks: The Colonial and Early American Diet." (free samples!) Peter Martino, President, Capital Teas and Liz Reitzig, Co-founder, Farm Food Freedom Coalition.
·         3:30pm: "A Permanent Home in Annapolis: The National Continental Congress Center Project.”  Mark Croatti, Director, the Annapolis Continental Congress Society.  

Sponsors:  The 2012 Continental Congress Festival and America’s Four Founding Republics Exhibit is made possible by the generosity and support of individual benefactors, corporate donors and partners of the Annapolis Continental Congress Society including:  Annapolis Forum, Denison Gibbs of Forgotten Founders CT, Historic Inns of Annapolis, Irish Traditions MD, J Frank Mowery & Associates Inc., Museum Framing, Seth Kaller, Inc., Michael J. Sullivan of Mt. Victoria, Dan Western of Western Properties, Louis & Jenna Klos, and the Klos Yavneh Academy.

The 2012 Continental Congress Festival is endorsed by the City of Annapolis.

A Special Thanks for the use of the projector, document security, research and funding to:

568 Monroe Hall
(504) 865-3442



The First United American Republic
Continental Congress of the United Colonies Presidents 
Sept. 5, 1774 to July 1, 1776


September 5, 1774
October 22, 1774
October 22, 1774
October 26, 1774
May 20, 1775
May 24, 1775
May 25, 1775
July 1, 1776


The Second United American Republic
Continental Congress of the United States Presidents 
July 2, 1776 to February 28, 1781

July 2, 1776
October 29, 1777
November 1, 1777
December 9, 1778
December 10, 1778
September 28, 1779
September 29, 1779
February 28, 1781


Commander-in-Chief United Colonies & States of America

George Washington: June 15, 1775 - December 23, 1783


The Third United American Republic
Presidents of the United States in Congress Assembled
March 1, 1781 to March 3, 1789

March 1, 1781
July 6, 1781
July 10, 1781
Declined Office
July 10, 1781
November 4, 1781
November 5, 1781
November 3, 1782
November 4, 1782
November 2, 1783
November 3, 1783
June 3, 1784
November 30, 1784
November 22, 1785
November 23, 1785
June 5, 1786
June 6, 1786
February 1, 1787
February 2, 1787
January 21, 1788
January 22, 1788
January 21, 1789



The Fourth United American Republic
Presidents of the United States of America
D-Democratic Party, F-Federalist Party, I-Independent, R-Republican Party, R* Republican Party of Jefferson & W-Whig Party 


(1789-1797)
(1933-1945)
(1865-1869)
(1797-1801)
(1945-1953)
(1869-1877)
(1801-1809)
(1953-1961)
 (1877-1881)
(1809-1817)
(1961-1963)
 (1881 - 1881)
(1817-1825)
(1963-1969)
(1881-1885)
(1825-1829)
(1969-1974)
(1885-1889)
(1829-1837)
(1973-1974)
(1889-1893)
(1837-1841)
(1977-1981)
(1893-1897)
(1841-1841)
(1981-1989)
(1897-1901)
(1841-1845)
(1989-1993)
(1901-1909)
(1845-1849)
(1993-2001)
(1909-1913)
(1849-1850)
(2001-2009)
(1913-1921)
(1850-1853)
(2009-2017)
(1921-1923)
(1853-1857)
(20017-Present)
(1923-1929)
*Confederate States  of America
(1857-1861)
(1929-1933)
(1861-1865)



Capitals of the United Colonies and States of America

Philadelphia
Sept. 5, 1774 to Oct. 24, 1774
Philadelphia
May 10, 1775 to Dec. 12, 1776
Baltimore
Dec. 20, 1776 to Feb. 27, 1777
Philadelphia
March 4, 1777 to Sept. 18, 1777
Lancaster
September 27, 1777
York
Sept. 30, 1777 to June 27, 1778
Philadelphia
July 2, 1778 to June 21, 1783
Princeton
June 30, 1783 to Nov. 4, 1783
Annapolis
Nov. 26, 1783 to Aug. 19, 1784
Trenton
Nov. 1, 1784 to Dec. 24, 1784
New York City
Jan. 11, 1785 to Nov. 13, 1788
New York City
October 6, 1788 to March 3,1789
New York City
March 3,1789 to August 12, 1790
Philadelphia
December 6,1790 to May 14, 1800       
Washington DC
November 17,1800 to Present



Chart Comparing Presidential Powers 
of  America's Four United Republics - Click Here


United Colonies and States First Ladies


1774-1788



United Colonies Continental Congress
President
18th Century Term
Age
09/05/74 – 10/22/74
29
Mary Williams Middleton (1741- 1761) Deceased
Henry Middleton
10/22–26/74
n/a
05/20/ 75 - 05/24/75
30
05/25/75 – 07/01/76
28
United States Continental Congress
President
Term
Age
07/02/76 – 10/29/77
29
Eleanor Ball Laurens (1731- 1770) Deceased
Henry Laurens
11/01/77 – 12/09/78
n/a
Sarah Livingston Jay (1756-1802)
12/ 10/78 – 09/28/78
21
Martha Huntington (1738/39–1794)
09/29/79 – 02/28/81
41
United States in Congress Assembled
President
Term
Age
Martha Huntington (1738/39–1794)
03/01/81 – 07/06/81
42
07/10/81 – 11/04/81
25
Jane Contee Hanson (1726-1812)
11/05/81 - 11/03/82
55
11/03/82 - 11/02/83
46
Sarah Morris Mifflin (1747-1790)
11/03/83 - 11/02/84
36
11/20/84 - 11/19/85
46
11/23/85 – 06/06/86
38
Rebecca Call Gorham (1744-1812)
06/06/86 - 02/01/87
42
02/02/87 - 01/21/88
43
01/22/88 - 01/29/89
36



Constitution of 1787
First Ladies
President
Term
Age
April 30, 1789 – March 4, 1797
57
March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801
52
Martha Wayles Jefferson Deceased
September 6, 1782  (Aged 33)
n/a
March 4, 1809 – March 4, 1817
40
March 4, 1817 – March 4, 1825
48
March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829
50
December 22, 1828 (aged 61)
n/a
February 5, 1819 (aged 35)
n/a
March 4, 1841 – April 4, 1841
65
April 4, 1841 – September 10, 1842
50
June 26, 1844 – March 4, 1845
23
March 4, 1845 – March 4, 1849
41
March 4, 1849 – July 9, 1850
60
July 9, 1850 – March 4, 1853
52
March 4, 1853 – March 4, 1857
46
n/a
n/a
March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865
42
February 22, 1862 – May 10, 1865
April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869
54
March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877
43
March 4, 1877 – March 4, 1881
45
March 4, 1881 – September 19, 1881
48
January 12, 1880 (Aged 43)
n/a
June 2, 1886 – March 4, 1889
21
March 4, 1889 – October 25, 1892
56
June 2, 1886 – March 4, 1889
28
March 4, 1897 – September 14, 1901
49
September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909
40
March 4, 1909 – March 4, 1913
47
March 4, 1913 – August 6, 1914
52
December 18, 1915 – March 4, 1921
43
March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923
60
August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929
44
March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933
54
March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945
48
April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1953
60
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961
56
January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963
31
November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969
50
January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974
56
August 9, 1974 – January 20, 1977
56
January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981
49
January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989
59
January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993
63
January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001
45
January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009
54
January 20, 2009 to date
45



Book a primary source exhibit and a professional speaker for your next event by contacting Historic.us today. Our Clients include many Fortune 500 companies, associations, non-profits, colleges, universities, national conventions, pr and advertising agencies. As the leading exhibitor of primary sources, many of our clients have benefited from our historic displays that are designed to entertain and educate your target audience. Contact us to learn how you can join our "roster" of satisfied clientele today!





Autographed Second Edition

Quantity
 
 



Historic.us Exhibits

Stan Klos lecturing at the Republican National Convention's PoliticalFest 2000 Rebels With A Vision Exhibit  in Philadelphia's Convention Hall 

Primary Source exhibits are available for display in your community. The costs range from $1,000 to $25,000 depending on length of time on loan and the rarity of artifacts chosen. 



Historic.us

Dr. Naomi Yavneh Klos hosting the Louisiana Primary Source Exhibit at the State Capitol Building for the 2012 Bicentennial Celebration.



Book a primary source exhibit and a professional speaker for your next event by contacting Historic.us today. Our Clients include many Fortune 500 companies, associations, non-profits, colleges, universities, national conventions, pr and advertising agencies. As the leading exhibitor of primary sources, many of our clients have benefited from our historic displays that are designed to entertain and educate your target audience. Contact us to learn how you can join our "roster" of satisfied clientele today!



Historic.us

 
A Non-profit Corporation

Primary Source Exhibits

2000 Louisiana Avenue | Venue 15696
New Orleans, Louisiana, 70115

727-771-1776 | Exhibit Inquiries

202-239-1774 | Office

Dr. Naomi and Stanley Yavneh Klos, Principals

Naomi@Historic.us
Stan@Historic.us

Primary Source exhibits are available for display in your community. The costs range from $1,000 to $35,000 depending on length of time on loan and the rarity of artifacts chosen. 

Website: www.Historic.us




Middle and High School Curriculum Supplement

For More Information  Click Here





U.S. Dollar Presidential Coin Mr. Klos vs Secretary Paulson - Click Here

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