Tuesday, September 11, 2012

America's Four Founding Republics

Please join us in our mission to incorporate America's Four United Republics discovery-based curriculum into the classroom of every primary and secondary school in the United States by July 2, 2026, the nation’s 250th birthday.


Students and Teachers of US History this is a video of Stanley and Christopher Klos presenting America's Four United Republics Curriculum at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School. The December 2015 video was an impromptu capture by a member of the audience of Penn students, professors and guests that numbered about 200.

Please purchase a curriculum TODAY for your local school or public library. 

                                            America's Four United Republics Curriculum
                                               





Stanley Yavneh Klos and Loyola University Honors’ November 14th, 2015, presentation of America’s Four United Republics Curriculum at the National Social Studies Teachers Conference was well received.  Both the presentation and primary source exhibits were a success with several major school systems brainstorming on how the new pedagogy could be implemented in their districts.  Boston officials were especially open to the reorganization of the U.S. Founding into four distinct republics & were surprised by the scope of Presidential hospitality duties Dorothy Hancock performed as "First Lady" in the Continental Congress republics. 

America’s Four United Republics book & curriculum sales to individual teachers & schools were also robust.


It was an enjoyable conference due to booth neighbors like the Library of Congress,  Brown University, Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, C-Span, Nat Geo, US Mint, Columbia University, Colonial Williamsburg, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Mount Vernon, Ronald Reagan Library, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello, Louisiana Archives, The US Constitution Center, National WWII Museum, and James Madison's Foundation.  


Moreover, The Library of Congress, National Archives, National Parks Representatives and even Freedom Riders came over to the booth after the AFUR presentation and had their pictures taken with the First Federal Court Decree: Pennsylvania v Connecticut (1782), the 1803 Congressional Printing of the Louisiana Purchase & Martin Luther King, Jr.'s signed   Letter From A Birmingham Jail.   




America’s Four United Republics
Curriculum Supplement

The transformation of the United States of America from thirteen British colonies into the current republic was a complex political process that spanned nearly 15-years.  To describe this development, most governmental institutions -- the United States Department of State, for example, and the Smithsonian  Institute -- divide the U.S. Republic into two distinct founding stages: the Continental Congress, first,  and then the current U.S. Constitution of 1787 governmental system. [i]  Historians, educators, and secondary school textbooks have been more thorough and have expanded this dichotomy by dividing the Continental Congress Era into the First Continental Congress , The Second Continental Congress , and the Congress of the Confederation . [ii]  The nomenclature used to describe the different “stages” of the rapidly evolving United States, however, has resulted in confusion regarding even the most basic founding facts: for example, the USA birthdate of July 4th, 1776, conflicts with Delaware’s designation as the “first US State,” (based on that state’s status as first to ratify the current US Constitution – on December 7th, 1787).  A short list of just a few important national election and event dates demonstrates the challenges:    


America’s Four United Republics booth at the National Social Studies Teachers Conference in New Orleans with the 1782 Decree of Trenton and 1803 Congressional Printing of the Louisiana Purchase displayed on table for teacher photo opportunities.


v  What is the birth date of the USA? Resolution for Independency – July 2, 1776; Declaration of Independence  - July 4th, 1776; Articles of Confederation enactment – March 1, 1781; Constitution of 1787 enactment – March 4, 1789.
v  Who was the 1st United States Head of State?U.S. Continental Congress President John Hancock – July 4th, 1776; United States in Congress Assembled President Samuel Huntington – March 1, 1781; United States Constitution of 1787 President  George Washington -  April 23rd, 1789
v  What is the birth date of the U.S. Constitution? Articles of Confederation framed November 15th, 1777 and enacted March 1st, 1781; Constitution of 1787 framed September 17, 1787 and enacted March 4, 1789.
v  Which State was the First U.S. State? New Hampshire first to vote for Independence from Great Britain – July 2nd, 1776; Virginia first to ratify the Articles of Confederation – December 16th, 1777; Delaware first to ratify the Constitution of 1787 on  December 7th, 1787
v  Who was the First Postmaster General?  Continental Congress elected Postmaster General Franklin on July 26th, 1775; United States in Congress Assembled elected Ebenezer Hazard - January 28th, 1782; Presidential  appointment Samuel Osgood - September 26th, 1789
v  Who Was the First Treasurer? Continental Congress elected Treasurer Michael Hillegas; July 29th, 1775, Constitution of 1787’s Presidential  appointment Samuel Meredith - September 11th, 1789
v  When was the first Dollar issued? The Continental Congress first enacted the United Colonies Dollar on June 23rd, 1775, United States Dollar on July 22nd, 1776 and the Constitution of 1787’s  An act establishing a mint, and regulating the Coins of the United States on April 2, 1792
v  Who was the first Commander-in-Chief? Continental Congress elected George Washington on June 15th, 1775; Constitution of 1787,  George Washington -  April 23rd, 1789
v  Name of the first bank chartered by the U.S. Congress? Bank of North America -  May 26th, 1781; First Bank of the United States - February 25th, 1791
v  Who was the First U.S. Secretary of War? U.S. Continental Congress elected Benjamin Lincoln - October 30th, 1781; United States in Congress Assembled elected Henry Knox  - March 8th, 1785
v  When was the first U.S. Federal Court Decision issued? Pennsylvania v Connecticut ” - December 30th, 1782; Supreme Court “West v. Barnes” - August 3rd, 1791


Consequently, the convolution of these U.S. Founding events and dates are ubiquitously apparent in everything from school textbooks to Library of Congress  exhibits under the current pedagogy. [iii] Even the U.S. Supreme Court , in its opinions, confuses the lawful difference between the United States “Continental Congress” and the Articles of Confederation ’s “United States in Congress Assembled .” [iv]



America’s Four United Republics booth at the National Social Studies Teachers Conference in New Orleans with the 1782 Decree of Trenton, 1803 Congressional Printing of the Louisiana Purchase, Martin Luther King Jr.'s Letter Form A Birmingham Jail  made available for teacher photo opportunities.

Utilizing Primary Sources, Stanley Yavneh Klos’ shucks the confusing First, Second, and Confederation “Continental Congress" labels unveiling that current United States Republic was preceded by three distinctly different United American Republics: 

·        First United American Republic: United Colonies of North America: Thirteen British Colonies United in Congress  was founded by 12 colonies on September 5th, 1774, and expired on July 2nd, 1776, with the enactment of the Resolution for Independency . The republic was governed by a British Colonial Continental Congress which, by 1775, provided for the security of its members with the formation of a Continental Army headed by a Commander-in-Chief, establishing military hospitals, the appointment of a Postmaster General, and even the issuing of its own currency. Peyton Randolph and George Washington served, respectively, as the republic's first United Colonies Continental Congress President and Commander-in-Chief;
·  Second United American Republic: The United States of America: Thirteen Independent States United in Congress was founded by 12 colonies with the passage of the Resolution for Independency on July 2nd, 1776 and expired on March 1st, 1781, with the enactment of the Articles of Confederation. The republic was governed by the United States Continental Congress, which conducted the war for independence and elected foreign ministers to negotiate treaties and alliances. John Hancock and George Washington served, respectively, as the republic's first United States Continental Congress President and Commander-in-Chief
·  Third United American Republic: The United States of America: A Perpetual Union   was founded by 13 States with the Articles of Confederation ’s enactment on March 1st, 1781, and expired on March 3rd, 1789 .  The republic was governed through the United States in Congress Assembled, which concluded the Revolutionary War, ratified the Treaty of Paris, and primarily governed through Congressional Committees and Executive Department Heads.  Samuel Huntington and George Washington served, respectively, as the republic's first United States in Congress Assembled President and Commander-in-Chief;
·   Fourth United American Republic: The United States of America: We the People was formed by 11 states with the United States Constitution of 1787 ’s enactment on March 4th, 1789.   This, the current republic of the United States, governs through The United States House of Representatives and Senate in Congress Assembled (Bicameral Congress), The President of the United States of America (U.S. President), United States Supreme Court (U.S. Supreme Court)  George Washington served as both the Republic's first President and its Commander-in-Chief.

In 2015, America’s Four United Republics: Curriculum Supplement (AFUR), was developed for middle, high school and college students to analyze America’s Four Republics: The More or Less United States reorganization of the United States founding by employing rhetorical strategies to scrutinize primary source evidence.  Instead of memorizing the convolution of notable founding facts and events during the Continental Congress period, students are challenged to evaluate AFUR’s reorganization of the 1774-1790 United States founding period based on the credibility and timeline of the historic record.  This curriculum supplement is specifically designed for students to deduce historical conclusions backed by inductive documentary evidence that supports, challenges, and/or refutes AFUR’s Dispositio.  Most importantly, the AFUR curriculum ensures that participating students will have a renewed sense of the fundamental experiences and influences that birthed the United States of America.

America’s Four United Republics exhibit at the National Social Studies Teachers Conference with a close-up view of the display case. Primary Sources exhibited include: President Peyton Randolph signed three pound Virginia note, 1774 printing of the Articles of Association, 1775 Richard Henry Lee Autograph Document Signed, 1776 Journals of the Continental Congress opened to the Declaration of Independence printed by John Dunlap, 1777 Journals of the Continental Congress opened to the Articles of Confederation, printed by John Dunlap, John Hancock document signed as President, Continental Congress First Lady Sarah Livingston Jay signed document, 1781 Journals of the United States in Congress Assembled opened to the enactment of the Articles of Confederation, Samuel Huntington document signed as President, Thomas McKean signed document as President, Annis Boudinot Stockton 1786 printing of the first published poem by a woman in the United States, John Jay Autograph letter signed as US Foreign Secretary, August 1787 printing of the Northwest Ordinance, Arthur St. Clair Autograph letter signed as Northwest Territorial Governor, September 1787 printing of the Constitution of 1787, and a November 1789 printing of the 12 Constitutional Amendments commonly known as the Bill of Rights.



INDEX


Definition Challenge: What is a Republic?                                                                           Page 5
Challenge: When Did the First United American Republic Begin?                                        Page 6
Debate: When Was Independence Day?                                                                               Pages 7 - 8
Setting the Scene: The Articles of Confederation                                                                  Pages 9 - 10
You be the Judge: The Forming of the Fourth United American Republic                            Pages 11 – 12
Challenge: Did the United States gain its independence and
sovereignty as a result of the Definitive Treaty of Peace signed
in Paris on September 3rd, 1783?                                                                                          Pages 13 – 14
Debate: Who were the first United States’ Head of State and First Lady?                            Pages 14 - 18
Debate: Which Colony was the first U.S. State?                                                                   Pages 19 – 21
Challenge: Which city was the first U.S. “Capital”?  What building was the
first U.S. Capitol?                                                                                                                    Pages 22 – 23
You be the Judge: Was the 1782 Decree of Trenton the first Federal
Court Decision?                                                                                                                      Pages 24 – 25
Why did the 1789 Congress approve a dysfunctional first amendment,
Article the First, to the Constitution of 1787?                                                                         Pages 26 – 29
The Historian: Unit Assessment                                                                                             Page 30
End Notes                                                                                                                               Page 31 - 32
UCCC, USCC, USCA, & US Presidential Duties & Powers Chart                                       Insert



                                            America's Four United Republics Curriculum
                                               
http://www.historic.us/p/nchc-partners-in-park.html



[i] See, for example, Department of State, Common Core Document of the United States of America ... “In 1783 the Continental Congress  voted to establish a federal city, and the specific site was chosen by President George Washington in 1790.” Washington D.C., 2012 http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/179780.htm and Smithsonian  Institute, Traveling exhibit: A Glorious Burden, The American Presidency, “John Hanson was the First President of The Continental Congress," http://americanhistory.si.edu/presidency/home.html.
[ii] See, for example, Kenneth R. Bowling,” 'A Tub to the Whale': the Founding Fathers and Adoption of the Federal Bill of Rights .” Journal of the Early Republic 8 (Fall 1988), 225.
[iii] See, for example, Alan Brinkley, who declares, The first elections under the Constitution took place in the early months of 1789.  Almost all of the newly elected congressmen and senators had favored ratification.…”  New York : McGraw Hill, 2007, p. 168, and Library of Congress  Creating the United States Exhibit: “Confederation Congress Elects Its First President John Hanson Charles Thomson  to George Washington , November 5, 1781 letter, Manuscript.
[iv] "Appreciation of the Continental Congress’s incapacity to deal with this class of cases was intensified by the so called Marbois  incident  of May 1784 ..." Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain 542 US 692.  Supreme Court of the U.S., 2004, p. 22.  

America’s Four Republics



The More or Less United States

Autographed Second Editions


America's Four Republics
 
 

Stan Klos
PO Box 15696
New Orleans, LA 70115
(202) 239-1774


Capitals of the United Colonies and States of America

Philadelphia
Sept. 5, 1774 to Oct. 24, 1774
Philadelphia
May 10, 1775 to Dec. 12, 1776
Baltimore
Dec. 20, 1776 to Feb. 27, 1777
Philadelphia
March 4, 1777 to Sept. 18, 1777
Lancaster
September 27, 1777
York
Sept. 30, 1777 to June 27, 1778
Philadelphia
July 2, 1778 to June 21, 1783
Princeton
June 30, 1783 to Nov. 4, 1783
Annapolis
Nov. 26, 1783 to Aug. 19, 1784
Trenton
Nov. 1, 1784 to Dec. 24, 1784
New York City
Jan. 11, 1785 to Nov. 13, 1788
New York City
October 6, 1788 to March 3,1789
New York City
March 3,1789 to August 12, 1790
Philadelphia
December 6,1790 to May 14, 1800       
Washington DC
November 17,1800 to Present




Middle and High School Curriculum Supplement

For More Information  Click Here





U.S. Dollar Presidential Coin Mr. Klos vs Secretary Paulson - Click Here




Presidential Alert: After 102 years, the Federal Government finally agrees that Samuel Huntington and not John Hanson was the first USCA President to serve under the Articles of Confederation.  -- Click Here

COMMENTS

From: Michael Furtado 
Sent: Sunday, June 04, 2017 11:15 AM
To: administrator@www.afur.us; evisum@historic.us
Subject: Inaccuracy in proposed "Curriculum Supplement"


Greetings;

I was reading the online presentation of your proposed "Curriculum Supplement" regarding the political origins of our country and noted an error. Not being a "team member" I was unable to post a comment, so I am forwarding my comment to you using the above email addresses. I would have preferred to make these points publicly, but getting the corrections included is my primary reason for the communication.

[[ New Hampshire was not the "first to vote for Independence from Great Britain – July 2nd, 1776" - Rhode Island did so almost two full months earlier on May 4, 1776. http://sos.ri.gov/divisions/Civics-And-Education/RI-History

Rhode Island also fired what were arguably the first shots in the fight that led to independence when  on July 9, 1772, the British 'customs schooner' Gaspee was lured over a sand bar and grounded overnight waiting for flood tide, and "[n]ear daylight on June 10th, the Rhode Islanders set fire to the Gaspee, burning her to the waterline whereupon her powder magazine exploded." 
http://www.gaspee.org/ ]]

Michael J Furtado
***************************************************************************** 
Sent: Sunday, June 04, 2017 3:59 PM
To: 'Michael Furtado'

Subject: RE: Inaccuracy in proposed "Curriculum Supplement" 

Thank you Mr. Furtado for your comments and making the case that Rhode Island was the first American colony to declare independence from Great Britain.   On May 4, 1776, Rhode Island became the first of the American colonies to repeal by an official legislative act its allegiance to King George III of England.  The text of the Act is cumbersome, stating: “wherever the name and the authority of the said King is made use of, the same shall be omitted, and in the room thereof the name and authority of the Governor and Company of this Colony shall be substituted, in the following words, to wit: "The Governor and Company of the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.” Here is the entire text of the Act:

AN ACT repealing an Act, entitled, "An Act for the more effectually securing to his Majesty the Allegiance of his Subjects, in this his Colony and Dominion of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations;" and altering the forms of commissions, of all writs and processes in the courts, and of the oaths prescribed by law.
WHEREAS in all states, existing by compact, protection and allegiance are reciprocal, the latter being only due in consequence of the former: And whereas George the Third, King of Great Britain, forgetting his dignity, regardless of the compact most solemnly entered into, ratified and confirmed, to the inhabitants of this Colony, by his illustrious ancestors, and till of late fully recognized by him—and entirely departing from the duties and character of a good King, instead of protecting, is endeavoring to destroy the good people of this Colony, and of all the United Colonies, by sending fleets and armies to America, to confiscate our property, and spread fire, sword and desolation, throughout our country, in order to compel us to submit to the most debasing and detestable tyranny, whereby we are obliged by necessity, and it becomes our highest duty, to use every means, with which God and nature have furnished us, in support of our invaluable rights and privileges; to oppose that power which is exerted only for our destruction.
BE it therefore enacted by this General Assembly, and by the authority thereof it is enacted, that an Act entitled, "An Act for the more effectual securing to His Majesty the Allegiance of his Subjects in this his Colony and Dominion of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations," be, and the same is hereby, repealed.
AND be it further enacted by this General Assembly, and by the authority thereof it is enacted, that in all commissions for offices, civil and military, and in all writs and processes in law, whether original, judicial or executory, civil or criminal, wherever the name and the authority of the said King is made use of, the same shall be omitted, and in the room thereof the name and authority of the Governor and Company of this Colony shall be substituted, in the following words, to wit: "The Governor and Company of the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations:" That all such commissions, writs and processes, shall be otherwise of the same form and tenure as they heretofore were: That the courts of law be no longer entitled nor considered as the King's courts: and that no instrument in writing, of any nature or kind, whether public or private, shall in the date thereof mention the year of the said King's reign: Provided nevertheless, that nothing in this Act contained shall render void or vitiate any commission, writ, process or instrument, heretofore made or executed, on account of the name and authority of the said King being therein inserted.

Rhode Island Governor Charles Warren Lippitt (October 8, 1846 – April 4, 1924) in his address, “The Rhode Island Declaration of Independence”, to the RI Citizen Historical Association, eloquently supports your assertion here: 

https://archive.org/stream/lippittrhodeisland00warrrich#page/n3/mode/2up/search/independence

Note, however, that the Governor’s Address reproduces the North Carolina Halifax resolution passed on April 12, 1776.  This Act enabled North Carolina Continental Congress Delegates, in conjunction with the other colonies, to declare independence forming new republic, so named the United States of America.  This Act predates the RI Act by a month.  North Carolina’s resolution reads as follows:

"Resolved that the delegates for this Colony in the Continental Congress be impowered to concur with the other delegates of the other Colonies in declaring Independency, and forming foreign Alliances, resolving to this Colony the Sole, and Exclusive right of forming a Constitution and Laws for this Colony, and of appointing delegates from time to time (under the direction of a general Representation thereof to meet the delegates of the other Colonies for such purposes as shall be hereafter pointed out."

Clearly, a case can be made that Rhode Island was the first to declare British Independency but it was not the first to declare independence on July 2, 1776 or on July 4, 1776, when the new republic, the United States of America, was born. This distinction, despite all the colonies, except New York, voting for Independence only minutes later, belongs to New Hampshire. 

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